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At this crisis the first volume of the me- tions and of good faith against despotism moir ends :—the next, said to be already in and treachery: and it has been maintained the press, promises to describe the war of in- with a resolution and gallantry that cannot dependence to which this harsh and faithless be too warmly admired. Still, it may be transaction gave the alarm. The drama, in- apprehended that its maintenance has been deed, is not yet played out to the end ;* but embarrassed, if not its success endangered, while expecting the issue with the interest by mixing up the question of supremacy of due to a cause with which all freemen will race over race with those national claims of sympathize, we may collect from its past the righteousness of which there can be no scenes some leading views as to the opening question. This combination tended to give of the struggle. It is of course solely as a Jellachich a power over the provincial inhabmatter of history that it falls within our itants not of Croatia only, which he could province,—and history is bound to be impar- not otherwise have wielded,—while it may tial. In this point of view the events de have paved the way for the Russians, as scribed in the present volume seem to lead champions of a Panslavic principle, in many to the following conclusions: - That the quarters where their intrusion would forHungarian nation, as a whole, did not at first merly have excited the liveliest resentment. design, nor for a long time desire, to reject We add, in illustration of what is above its Hapsburg monarch: and, further, that, said of Kossuth's energy and spirit, the folwhatever change subsequent events might lowing remarkable letter to Lord Palmerhave produced under the new constitution, ston, written after the failure of the Hunfor a time, at least, Hungary would have garian cause. taken no part against Austria in her other relations had the latter shown a sincere de
KOSSUTH'S LETTER TO LORD PALMERSTON. termination to observe the concessions which
Widdin (Turkey), Sept. 20. the Emperor had nominally acceded to, nor Your Excellency is no doubt already ingiven countenance in secret to the Slavonian formed of the fall of my country—unhappy “rebels:"—that the Magyars, while assert- Hungary, assuredly worthy of a better fate. ing their own nationality, were not disposed It was not prompted by the spirit of disto admit the claims of the Slavonian popula- order, or the ambitious views of faction; it tion to equal privileges ; and that in disputing was not a revolutionary leaning which induced them at the outset they committed an error- my native country to accept the mortal if not an injustice. The effect of this was to struggle maintained so gloriously, and throw into the arms of Austria all the Sla- brought, by nefarious means, to so unfortu vonian provinces: among which it is proba- nate an end. ble that the Servians, if not the Croats, were Hungary has deserved from her kings the at first by no means prone to make common historical epithet of “generous nation,” for cause with absolutism. If, therefore, the she never allowed herself to be surpassed in Vienna Court was justly suspected of insin- loyalty and faithful adherence to her sovercerity from the beginning, any measures that eign by any nation in the world. by alarming the Slavonian races tended to Nothing but the most revolting treachery, provoke a Panslavic union, were precisely the most tyrannical oppression, and cruelties such as a sagacious policy would have avoid unheard of in the words of history-nothing ed. It is probable, indeed, that but for the but the infernal doom of annihilation to her temptation offered by the symptoms of a national existence, preserved through a civil war of races in the Hungarian kingdom, thousand years, through adversities so the “Camarilla,” however inclined, would merous, were able to arouse her to oppose not have ventured, in the then state of Eu- the fatal stroke aimed at her very life, to rope, upon a counter-revolution. The latter enable her to repulse the tyrannical assault being once declared, the cause of Hungary of the ungrateful Hapsburgs, or to accept of course became the cause of liberal institu- the struggle for life, honor, and liberty,
forced upon her. And she has nobly fought * The above was written before the arrival of the recent accounts of serious reverses, said to have
that holy battle, in which with the aid of been suffered by the Hungarians—of an alleged sur-Almighty God she prevailed against Austria, render of their best army, and of the disappearance whom we crushed to the earth, standing of Kossuth.
What consequence may ensue upon firm, even when attacked by the Russian this new state of things, time alone can reveal:this , in the meanwhile
, may be firmly believed, a giant, in the conscionsness of justice, in our that a warlike people, determined to be free, can hope in God, and in our hope, my lord, in never be permanently enslaved.
the generous feeling of your great and glori
ous nation, the natural supporter of justice , Turkish government, whose situation I well and humanity throughout the world. But knew how to appreciate, and therefore did this is over : what tyranny began has been not intrude on the Turkish territories without by treachery concluded; on all sides previously inquiring whether I and my abandoned, my poor country has fallen, not companions in misfortune would be willingly through the overwhelming power of two received, and the protection of the Sultan great empires, but by the faults, and I may granted to us. say the treason, of her own sons.
We received the assurance that we were To these untoward events, I pray God that welcome guests, and should enjoy the full my unhappy country may be the only sacri- protection of his Majesty the Padisha, who fice, and that the true interests of peace, would rather sacrifice fifty thousand men of freedom, and civilization through the world his own subjects, than allow one hair of our may not be involved in our unhappy fate. heads to be injured.
Mr. Francis Pulsky, our diplomatic agent It was only upon this assurance that we in London, has received ample information passed into the Turkish territory, and accordas to the cause of this sudden and unlooked- ing to the generous assurance we were refor change in the affairs of Hungary, and is ceived and tended on our journey, received instructed to communicate it to your Excel in Widdin as the Sultan's guests, and treated lency, if you are graciously pleased to re- hospitably, during four weeks, whilst waiting ceive the same. It is not antipathy to Aus- from Constantinople further orders as to the tria, though so well merited at the hands of continuation of our sad journey to some disevery Hungarian, but a true conviction which tant shore. makes me say, that even Austria has lost far Even the ambassadors of England and more by her victory, gained through Russian France, to whom I ventured in the name of aid, than she would have lost in merited de- humanity to appeal, were so kind as to asfeat through honorable arrangement. Fallen sure me of their full sympathy. from her position of a first-rate power, she His Majesty, the Sultan, was also so gra. has now forfeited her self-consistency, and cious as to give a decided negative to the has sunk into the obedient instrument of inhuman pretensions of our extradition deRussian ambition and of Russian commands. manded by Russia and Austria.
Russia only has gained at this sanguinary But a fresh letter from bis Majesty the game; she has extended and strengthened Czar arrived in Constantinople, and its conher influence in the east of Europe, and sequence was the suggestion sent to us by threatens already, in a fearful manner, with an express messenger of the Turkish Governoutstretching arms, not only the integrity, ment, that the Poles and Hungarians, and but the moral basis, of the Turkish empire. in particular myself, Count Casimir Bat
May it please you, my lord, to communithyany, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Huncate to your Excellency a most revolting gary, under my government, and the Gencondition which the Turkish government, at erals Messaros and Perczel (all here), would the suggestion of Russia, is about to impose be surrendered unless we chose to abjure upon us poor homeless exiles.
the faith of our forefathers in the religion of I, the governor of unhappy Hungary, Christ, and become Mussulmans. And thus after having, I believe, as a good citizen and live thousand Christians are placed in the honest man, fulfilled to the last my duties to terrible alternative either of facing the my country, had no choice left me between scaffold or of purchasing their lives by abanthe repose of the grave and the inexpressible doning their faith. So low is already fallen anguish of expatriation.
the once mighty Turkey, that she can devise Many of my brethren in misfortune bad no other means to answer or evade the preceded me on the Turkish territory. I demands of Russia. followed thither in the hope that I should be Words fail me to qualify these astonishing permitted to pass to England, and there, suggestions, such as never have been made under the protection of the English people yet to the fallen chief of a generous nation, -a protection never yet denied to persecuted and could hardly have been expected in the man-allowed to repose for a while my
nineteenth century. wearied head on the hospitable shore of your My answer does not admit of hesitation. happy island.
Between death and shame the choice can But even with these views I would rather neither be dubious nor difficult. Governor have surrendered myself to my deadliest of Hungary, and elected to that high place enemy than to cause any difficulties to the | by the confidence of fifteen millions of my
countrymen, I know well what I owe to the jure their religion, or accept the same alterhonor of my country even in exile. Even native. as a private individual I have an honorable No friends to the Turkish government path to pursue. Once governor of a gen- would spring up from my blood shed by her erous country-I leave no heritage to my broken faith, but many deadly foes. My children—they shall
, at least, bear an un- lord, your heart will, I am sure, excuse my sullied name. God's will be done. I am having called your attention to our unhappy prepared to die ; but as I think this measure fate, since it has now assumed political imdishonorable and injurious to Turkey, whose portance. Abandoned in this unsocial land interest I sincerely have at heart, and as I by the whole world, even the first duties of feel it my duty to save my companions in humanity give us no promise of protection exile, if I can, from a degrading alternative, unless, my lord, you and your generous I have replied to the Grand Vizier in a con- nation come forward to protect us. ciliatory manner, and took also the liberty What steps it may be expedient that you to apply to Sir Stratford Canning and Gen- should take, what we have a right to exeral Aupich for their generous aid against pect from the well-known generosity of this tyrannic act. In full reliance on the England, it would be hardly fitting for me noble sentiments and generous principles of to enter on. I place my own and my comyour Excellency, by which, as well as panions' fate in your hands, my lord, and in through your wisdom, you have secured the the name of humanity throw myself under esteem of the civilized world, I trust to be the protection of England. excused in enclosing copies of my two letters Time presses—our doom may in a few to the Grand Vizier and Sir Stratford Can- days be sealed. Allow me to make an ning.
humble personal request. I am a man, my I am informed that the whole matter is lord, prepared to face the worst ; and I can a cabal against the ministry of Reschid die with a free look at Heaven, as I have Pacha, whose enemies would wish to force lived. But I am also, my lord, a husband, him to our extradition, in order to lower it son, and father, my poor true-hearted wife, in public estimation, and render impossible its my children, and my noble old mother, are continuance in office. It is certain that in wandering about Hungary. They will probthe grand council held on the 9th and 10th ably soon fall into the hands of those of September, after a tumultuous debate, Austrians who delight in torturing even the majority of the council declared in feeble women, and with whom the innocence favor of our extradition, the majority of the of childhood is no protection against perseministry against it. No decision was come to cutions. I conjure your Excellency, in the in consequence of the altercation which took name of the Most High, to put a stop to place; but, notwithstanding, the ministry these cruelties by your powerful mediation, thought fit to make us the revolting sugges- and especially to accord to my wife and tion I have named.
children an asylum on the soil of the generThis mode of solving the difficulty would ous English people. not, I am convinced, save the ministry, be- As to my poor-my loved and noble cause a protection only given in contradiction country-must she, too, perish for ever ? of the Sultan's generous feeling, at the price Shall she, unaided, abandoned to her fate, of five thousand Christians abandoning their and unavenged, be doomed to annihilation by faith, would be revolting to the whole her tyrants ? Will England, once her hope, Christian world, and prove hardly calculated not become her consolation ? to win sympathies for Turkey in the event of The political interests of civilized Europe, war with Russia, which, in the opinion of so many weighty considerations respecting the most experienced Turkish statesmen, is England herself, and chiefly the maintenance approaching fast.
of the Ottoman empire, are too intimately As to my native country, Turkey does, I bound up with the existence of Hungary for believe, already feel the loss of the neglected me to lose all hope. My lord, may God the opportunity of having given to Hungary at Almighty for many years shield you, that least some moral help to enable it to check you may long protect the unfortunate, and the advance of the common enemy. But it live to be the guardian of the rights of appears to me that it would be a very ill-freedom and humanity. I subscribe myself, advised mode of gaining Hungarian sym- with the most perfect respect and esteem, pathy by sending me to an Austrian scaffold,
(Signed) L. KOSSUTH. and foreing my unhappy companions to ab
From Fraser's Magazine.
CHATHAM - SHERIDAN-BURKE-FOX. *
The Modern Orator. Being a Selection from the Speeches of the Earl of Chatham,
Sheridan, Edmund Burke, Lord Erskine, and Charles James Fox, with Introductions and Explanatory Notes. In 2 vols. 8vo. London: Aylott & Jones, Paternoster Row.
Messrs. Aylott and Jones have established | Life of Sheridan. (Who that has not passa strong claim upon the gratitude of all to ed his grand climacteric ever thinks of refer whom the cause of English literature is dear. ring to these, except for a purpose ?) And They have come forward in a very spirited even Prior’s Life of Burke, though comparmanner to save from oblivion some of the atively a recent publication, lives but in the brightest flowers in the whole garland of memory of a passing generation, and will English eloquence. In The Modern Orator, soon take its place on the top-shelves, among compiled under their auspices, we have col- the books “which no gentleman's library lected within a moderate compass, not speci- ought to be without.” Messrs. Aylott and mens only, but the very cream of all that Jones have, therefore, done good service, Chatham, Sheridan, Burke, Erskine, and both to the memory of the glorious dead and Fox, ever addressed to either House of Par- to the taste and political education of the liament. The speeches of each statesman, living. They have embalmed, so to speak, moreover, are prefaced by a short sketch of the rich imagery, the terse argument, the his life; while explanatory notes enable the glorious declamation of the former, in a reader fully to apprehend both the general shrine which, being accessible to all, has a drift of the several orations that come before good chance of commanding the devotion of him, and the particular points which, in the true worshipers to the end of time; while progress of his argument, the speaker has before the living age they bring models of contrived either to achieve or to miss. It is imitation, which, as they may be studied impossible to overestimate the value or im- without fatigue, and remembered in their portance of such a publication. While it i just proportions, so they cannot fail of giving brings within the reach of thousands, knowl- a bias to the tastes, and strengthening the reedge, from which, without some help of the flective powers of the young and tie ardent sort, they must have been entirely shut out, of many generations. it supplies the more fortunate few with a Chatham, Sheridan, Erskine, Burke, Foxmanual, easily referred to, and just sufficient. what a galaxy of illustrious names! Whig ly extensive to recall to their recollection though they be (with the exception, at least, whatever, in this department of literature, an of Burke, and he was a Whig at the outset), educated man would be loath to forget. No it is impossible not to feel when we come indoubt there are fuller biographies extant of to their presence that we are indeed standall the great men referred to here. And the ing upon holy ground. But why should our intrinsic worth of these must remain to the spirited publishers stop there? Has not end of time precisely what it was when each England produced another Pitt, attaining, first came under the scalpel of the critic. even in his youth, to higher eminence than But experience has long ago shown, that bi- his father succeeded in making at mature ographies continue to be popular in an in- age? Are Canning's silver tones forgotten? verse ratio to their bulk; because you cannot Has Wilberforce quite passed from men's forever keep alive the literary appetite that memories? or Huskisson, or Scott, or Murgulps down a couple of quartos, or half-a-ray, or Thurloe? And might not passages dozen bulky octavos at the outset. Look at of surpassing power and interest be culled Tomlin's Life of Pitt, Lord Holland's Me- from the speeches of still earlier statesmen, moirs of Charles James Fox, and Moore's such as Hyde, Falkland, Hampden, Cecil?
Perhaps this hint of ours may not be His great forte, like that of his immortal thrown away. The firm wbich has dared to son, seems to have been “invective,” the put forth these two volumes, cannot fail of force of which was much enhanced by the meeting with such encouragement as shall lightning glance of an eye which few could lead to more. And then, without doubt, the bear when turned upon them without shrinksame judgment and skill which have been ing. brought to bear upon the present selection, He delivered his maiden speech in parliawill find scope and room enough to disport ment on the 29th of April, 1736, when Mr. themselves on another.
Pulteney, then Paymaster of the Forces, The first of the great men with whom The moved an address of congratulation to Modern Orator deals was born in St. James's George II. on the marriage of Frederick parish, Westminster, on the 15th of Novem- Prince of Wales with the Princess Augusta ber, 1708. His grandfather, when governor of Saxe Gotha. To our less courtly ears, of Madras, had purchased for £20,400, a there is a tone of too much adulation about diamond, which was long considered the this speech, which, however, the editors of largest in the world; and subsequently sold The Modern Orator have, with great judgit to the Regent Orleans, on account of the ment, preserved. And as it lauded the King of France, for £135,000. Thus en- Prince on account of his many virtues, riched, he became the proprietor of a hand- among which dutiful obedience to his royal some estate near Lostwithiel, in Cornwall, father was not forgotten, the royal father, which he bequeathed, together with a con- who hated the royal son consumedly, never siderable portion in money, to his son Rob- forgave the insult. The young statesman ert. of this Robert, by Harriet Villiers, was most unceremoniously' deprived of his sister to the Earl of Grandison, William Pitt, cornetey of Horse, and went, as in duty afterward Earl of Chatham, was the second bound, into violent opposition. As a matter
of course, the dutiful Prince of Wales took William Pitt was sent at an early age to to his arms the man whom the King his Eton, where he greatly distinguished himself, father delighted not to honor. Mr. Pitt was and became a favorite both with the masters appointed Groom of the Bedchamber to his and his schoolfellows. Among the latter, royal highness, and forthwith took a promihe seems to have associated chiefly with nent part in assailing the policy and person George, afterward Lord Lyttleton ; Henry of Sir Robert Walpole. Fox, afterward Lord Holland; and Henry The first heavy blow struck by the ex-corFielding. He entered Trinity College, Ox. net at the prime minister was delivered in ford, as a gentleman commoner ; but never March, 1739, when he fiercely attacked took a degree. An attack of gout in early Walpole's convention with Spain, and conlife induced him to quit the university, and tributed not a little, by the force of his eloto seek in travel through France and Italy quence, to bring it into disrepute. The cabthe health which had been seriously impair- inet carried its motion, but by a majority of ed. After his return, he obtained a commis- only twenty-eight votes—a thing quite unsion in the Blues, and in February, 1735, precedented in the good old times of undistook his seat in the House of Commons as guised corruption; and the chief of the cabmember for Old Sarum. He at once, and inet felt the same hour that his power was without any apparent effort, made his pres- shaken. Nor is this to be wondered at. ence felt in the great council of the nation. There was a vigor in Pitt's onslaught which A strikingly handsome figure, a dignified and a better cause might have found it hard to graceful manner, a voice full, rich, clear, and withstand ; brought against the truckling of singularly flexible, supplied all that is want the great Whig premier, it was quite irresisting to complete the exterior graces of an or- | ible. ator; and neither the style nor the matter of “ This convention, sir, I think from my soul, is his speeches disappointed the expectations nothing but a stipulation for national ignoniny ; which these outward signs might have stir- an illusory expedient to baffle the resentment of red. Butler, in his Reminiscences, says of the nation; a truce, without a suspension of hosLord Chatham, that “ his lowest whisper tilities on the part of Spain; on the part of Engwas distinctly heard ; his middle tones were
land, a suspension, as to Georgia, of the first law sweet, rich, and beautifully varied ; when he of nature, self-preservation and self-defence; a elevated his voice to its highest pitch, the the mercy of plenipotentiaries; and, in this infi
surrender of the rights and trade of England to house was completely filled with the volume nitely highest and most sacred point-future seof the sound.”
curity, not only inadequate, but directly repug