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This, the sixth annual volume of the Wisconsin State Horticultural Society, is given to the public with the earnest hope that all who are interested in horticulture, especially in our own State, will find its contents fully as interesting, and as useful to them in their field of labor, as those of former years. There may appear to some to be a lack of variety in the range of subjects presented, and that too much space is devoted to apple-culture; but this seemed to our members to be the "subject of the hour," and to demand special attention. The extreme severity of the winter of 1874-75 had, by the destruction it occasioned in our orchards, unsettled the faith of the public generally, and of some even of our oldest fruit-growers, in the success of fruit-culture in our State, and there was an earnest desire, on the part of those assembled at our annual meeting, to fully discuss the situation, and, if possible, to devise some remedy, some way of escape from the evils that beset us. Interesting articles will also be found on grape-culture, floriculture, cranberries, small-fruits, and ornamental foliage.
The reports of the committee of observation, from the different fruit-districts will be found an interesting and instructive feature of the volume. It is much to be regretted that want of space made it necessary to cut down the reports sent in. These reports should form a prominent part of our yearly volumes; for in no way can more light and knowledge be gained on horticulture subjects, than by a careful collection and consideration of the experience of others; and of all the facts developed by different conditions and systems of culture.
The illustrations in the volume add much to its appearance, and, we trust, to its worth. The importance of a more general knowledge of our insect friends and foes, led our Society to ado the plan of ing an article on this subject each year, illustrating it with cuts of the insects described so that they may readily be known to all. Thanks are due to Prof. W. W. Daniells, of the State University, who kindly furnished the entomological notes of the present volume.
Cuts are given of two valuable varieties of fruit, originating in this State. The frontispiece, a colored illustration of Whitney's Seedling No. 20, is inserted through the kindness of Mr. Whitney himself, at his own expense. As the apple is excellent in quality for cooking and canning, and as the tree has proved sufficiently hardy to endure our most severe winters, having been in bearing for sixteen years, it was deemed worthy of insertion.
Obligations are due to the State Printer for printing the Transactions at the earliest moment the other demands of the State on him would permit, and for the neat and attractive manner in which he has done the work.
F. W. CASE,
MADISON, June, 1876.
OFFICERS AND STANDING COMMITTEES..
Yield of Strawberries, B. F. Adams, Philip Cheek, J. M. Smith.
Life-Dr. Joseph Hobbins, Ex-President, F. G. S., Corresponding Member Royal Horticultural Society, England, Madison; O. S. Willey, Ex-Recording Secretary; Benton Harbor, Michigan.
Annual A. R. Whitney, Franklin Grove, Ill.; Mrs H. M. Lewis, Madison; Mrs. I. H. Williams, Madison, Mrs. M. M. Davis, Baraboo.
Constitution and By-Laws.
Adopted at the Annual Meeting in February, 1868.
ARTICLE I.-This Society shall be known as the Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. ARTICLE II.-Its object shall be the advancement of the science of Pomology and the art of Horticulture.
ARTICLE III.-Its members shall consist of Annual members, paying an annual fee of one dollar; of Life members paying a fee of ten dollars at one time, and of Honorary members, who shall only be members of distinguished merit in horticultural or kindred sciences, or who shall confer any particular benefit upon the society, who may by vote be invited to participate in the proceedings of the Society.
ARTICLE IV.-Its officers shall consist of a President, Vice-President, Recording Secretary, Corresponding Secretary, Treasurer and Executive Board, consisting of the foregoing officers and the ex-President, and three members to be elected annually; five of whom shall constitute a quorum at any of its meetings.
In addition to the foregoing officers, the Presidents of all local societies shall be deemed honorary members, and ex-officio Vice-Presidents of this society.
All officers shall be elected by ballot, and shall hold their office for one year thereafter, and until their successors are elected.
ARTICLE V.-The Society shall hold annual meetings, commencing on the Monday next preceding the first Tuesday of February, for the election of officers, for discussions, and for the exhibition of fruits; also, one meeting during the fall, for the exhibition of fruits and for discussions, at such time and place as the Executive Board shall designate.
ARTICLE VI.-This Constitution may be amended at any regular meeting by a two-thirds vote of the members present.
I. The President shall preside at meetings, and with the advice of the Secretary, call all meetings of the society, and have a general superintendence of the affairs of the society; and shall deliver an annual address, upon some subject connected with horticulture.
II. The Vice-President shall act in the absence or disability of the President, and perform the duties of the chief officer.
III. The secretaries of local societies shall; by correspondence and personal intercourse with the horticulturists of their respective districts, obtain accurate information of the condition and progress of horticulture, and report to this society.
IV. The Corresponding Secretary shall attend to all the correspondence of the society. V. The Recording Secretary shall record the proceedings of the society, preserve all papers belonging to the same, and superintend the publication of its reports.
VI. The Treasurer shall receive and keep an account of all moneys belonging to the society, and disburse the same on the written order of the President, countersigned by the Secretary, and shall make an annual report of receipts and disbursements.
VII. The Executive Board may, subject to the approval of the society, manage all its affairs, and fill vacancies in the board of officers; three of their number, as designated by the President shall constitute a finance committee,
VIII. It shall be the duty of the finance committee to settle with the Treasurer, and to examine and report upon all bills or claims against the society, which may have been presented and referred to them.