« AnteriorContinuar »
Translated from the Batavia Gazette, of the 24th May 1823.
We, G. A. G. P. Baron van der Capellen, Grand Cross of the Order of the Belgian Lion, Secretary of State, Governor-General of Netherlands' India, &c. &c. &c. in Council, to all those who shall see, or hear read unto them, these presents, send greeting and inform them : That it has appeared to the Supreme Government, that since the restoration of the authority of the Netherlands in Java, and particularly in the latter years, a considerable number of lands and dessas, situated in the territories of the Javanese (native) princes, have been taken, either in rent or farms, by Europeans and others, not forming part of the Javanese population, some of which are for a period of several years, and on which rents said persons have made considerable advances. Taking into consideration that these proceedings are contrary to those regulations which have ever existed, and not been repealed at any time, that they are, therefore, contrary to the conditions on which permission of residence in Netherland's India has been granted to all Europeans and others, not being Javanese : Considering also, that these proceedings can, at all events, not be considered valid without the particular sanction of the Supreme Government, which alone and exclusively has the power to grant dispensations from existing regulations, in consequence of particular and weighty reasons of which it alone can judge; and in consequence of such dispensation, allow of exceptions from such regulations. Considering that the Supreme Government had, in order to prevent the prejudicial consequences which might arise out of such proceedings, both to the interests of Government and of the Javanese
princes, by a resolution of the 30th October 1821, given strict orders to the Residents of the Courts of Surakarta and Djocjocarta to forbid and prevent in the strongest manner all such further leases of farms as above-mentioned, and has since, on the 14th January last, passed the strictest orders, and taken the measures necessary with respect to these illegal leases and farms. Having seen the latter reports of the Residents at these courts, as well as the declarations made in their letters by H.H., the Susuhunan of Surakarta, and the Regency of H. H., the minor Sultan of Djocjocarta, as also the Pangerang, Adipatti, Ario, Mangko, Negoro, to the Governor-General, and now seriously desiring that all such doubts and uncertainties as seem still to exist with respect to this matter, be removed at once; and at the same time, that the contracts entered into contrary to the above-mentioned regulations, shall cease to be of any force, excepting as shall be pointed out hereinfurther; and more particularly that no such contracts be renewed hereafter: We have thought proper to make known, unto whomsoever it may regard, by this our publication; 1st. That all contracts entered into by Europeans, or other persons not being Javanese princes or their subjects, or with the Pangerang, Adipatti, Ario, Mangko, Negoro, for the rent or farm of lands or dessas, for a period not exceeding three years, and with an advance of no more than six months, may be allowed to continue in existence, provided that by the former registration of these contracts at the offices of Surakarta, or Djocjocarta, or any other legal form, it do satisfactorily appear to these respective Residents that these contracts have already existed before the 15th November 1822, and provided these contracts be presented anew for registration to the Resident in whose district the rented or farmed lands or dessas are situated, within two months after the publication hereof; it being most expressly declared, that all the lands and dessas situated throughout the whole extent of the territory of Surakarta and Djocjocarta are, without any exception whatsoever, comprehended in this regulation. 2dly. That, on the other hand, all above-mentioned contracts that have been entered into for a longer period than three successive years, and with a larger advance than six months, lease or farm-rent, by any Europeans, or other persons not being Javanese, with the Java princes, or other subjects, or with the Pangerang, Adipatti, Ario, Mangko, Negoro, shall terminate and cease to be of any effect on or before the 31st of January 1824; with the exception only of such contracts as have been made with the express previous knowledge and consent of the Government; the persons desiring such permission being obliged to petition the President in whose district the lands are situated, who will present such petitions, with his considerations thereon, to Government. 4thly. That these petitions shall only be agreed to under the following provisions, except in some extraordinary cases where such may be considered undoubtedly advantageous, either towards assisting the establishment of useful manufactories, or promoting the purposes of science and the arts : A.—That the lease shall not be allowed for any longer period than three years, nor a larger advance than one half-year's rent; this being understood not to allow of any arrangements for, nor the liquidation of any other debt or engagement. B.—That the agreement shall be passed by a notary, or any other public officer duly authorized, both in the Netherlands and Javanese languages; that in this act the special Government shall be made mention of, and that it be registered by the President, C.—That the petitioners be inhabitants of Surakarta or Djocjocarta, and that these
lands be intended and used merely pleasure or vegetable gardens, or for obtaining paddy, grass, labourers, or other necessaries for the use of a family; but on no account for the culture of coffee, pepper, or other produce; that therefore these leases are to be granted merely for small parcels of ground situated in the neighbourhood of the principal towns. D.—That the lessees are in no case to be vested with the least public authority, much less with any Javanese title or rank; on the contrary, that the lessee shall take care to keep himself from any interference with matters relating to the public administration of police. 5thly. That all Europeans, Chinese, or others not being Javanese, which shall be found after the 31st of January 1824 in the possession or enjoyment of any lands in the residencies of Surakarta or Djocjocarta, without the special consent of the Government, or without those contracts by which they possess or enjoy such, having been registered agreeably to the first article of this publication, shall be ordered immediately to quit those residencies; while, at the same time, Government shall take such measures as it may, according to circumstances, think fit for the powerful execution of the laws against such persons as are lease or shareholders in such lands, or domiciliated elsewhere, annulling without delay, in both such cases, the existing contracts, and confiscating in favour of the lessors all the revenues and advantages which the said persons still have derived from the above-mentioned agreements. To prevent any pretended ignorance of these presents, they shall be published and affixed wheresoever it is customary, in the Netherlands, native, and Chinese languages. We further order and decree that every constituted authority, judges, and public officers, shall, in their different capacities, look strictly to the execution of these presents, without any circumvention or regard to persons. WAN DER CAPElleN. Given at Batavia, on the 6th of May 1823.
By order of the Governor-General in Council. The Secretary-General,
We have reason to believe, that the first of the following hymns is from the pen of the Right Rev. Reginald Heber, Lord Bishop of Calcutta; the second is known to have been written by him on the occasion of his preaching a sermon at Shrewsbury, in aid of Christian Missions.
HYMNS FOR THE EPIPHANY.
BRIGHTEST and best of the sons of the morning,
Star of the East the horizon adorning,
Cold on his cradle the dew-drops are shining,
Angels adore him in slumber reclining,
Say, shall we yield him, in costly devotion,
Gems of the mountain, and pearls of the ocean,
Vainly we offer each ample oblation :
Richer by far is the heart's adoration,
Brightest and best of the sons of the morning,
Star of the East the horizon adorning,
FRoM Greenland's icy mountains,
Where Afric's sunny fountains
From many an ancient river,
They call us to deliver
What, though the spicy breezes
Though every prospect pleases,
In vain with lavish kindness,
The heathen, in his blindness,
Shall we, whose souls are lighted
Shall we to man benighted,
Salvation 1 oh, salvation'
The joyful sound proclaim,
Waft, waft, ye winds, his story,
Till like a sea of glory,
Till o'er our ransomed nature,
Redeemer, King, Creator,
Critical Researches in Philology and Geography. Glasgow, 1824. This work consists of three articles: 1. A Review of Professor Lee's edition of Sir Wm. Jones's Grammar of the Persian language; 2d. “An Examination of the various opinions that in modern times have been held respecting the sources of the Ganges, and the correctness of the Lamas’ Map of Thibet;” 3d. A Review of Noble's Arabic Vocabulary, and Inder for Richardson's Arabic Grammar. Of the first article, there is no occasion for us to take much notice, since the subject of it has already been discussed in our Journal. Of the third article, we shall merely observe that it evinces a considerable portion of learning; but that the style is rather careless, and even incorrect in its structure; and that the author betrays too great a proneness to be severe and caustic. The second article is certainly the best, and cannot be read without interest, although we hope that the perplexities attending the geography of Central Asia, are likely soon to be more effectually removed, than by the ingenious hypotheses of European scholars.
The two great objects of the writer of this article are these :- to demonstrate the comparative accuracy of the statements given by the Thibetian Lamas of the courses of the streams, and situations of the various places in the vicinity of the vast range of televated land which separate North'ern and Southern Asia; and to vindicate the claims of our countrymen to the honour of those discoveries which have been made and are still making in those regions, and which the French literati, actuated by a mean and unworthy jealousy, are labouring to assign to German Jesuits and French antiquaries. As we do not feel it incumbent upon us to retrace the steps we made whilst examining Mr. Frazer's Tour among the Himalaya mountains, especially since a solution of most of the difficulties hitherto met with will be afforded by Mr. Moocroft, we shall merely lay before our readers, an outline of this article. The injustice with which the Lamas' map has been treated by geographers, is certainly apparent from the details given by the writer. Although it is admitted that the whole of the information obtained by the Lamas was
not the result of personal examination and actual survey (the western limit of their route terminating at the northwestern foot of the angle formed by the junction of the Caillas and Himalaya ridges, which embosom the celebrated lake Manasarowar); yet their authorities were less vague and uncertain than those which have tempted our geographers to disregard them, who have deviated, it now appears, in several instances, into error. The first operator upon this celebrated map, was D'Anville. Some of his alterations were obviously necessary, as where he shortened the immense course of the Ganges (1150 miles) through western Thibet. “In other respects, he made the matter worse, by removing the sources of the supposed Ganges two degrees more to the north, and by making the Ganges to run through three lakes, instead of two, as in the Lamas' map, adding the small lake of Conghe to the number, without any just authority for doing so; and also by making the northern branch of the supposed river run to the north-west, as far as 34 N. lat.” Anquetil Duperron adopted D'Anville's errors, and also sophisticated the Lamas' map with materials obtained from the German Jesuit, Tiefenthaler, the traveller who is thrust ferward by the French Asiatic Society, as possessing a prior claim to the discoveries of Messrs. Webb, Moorcroft, and Hodgson. Anquetil Duperron, with the Jesuit’s assistance, among other blunders, described two rivers as flowing from the lake Manasarowar, in opposite directions, which, on account of the peculiar situation of the lake, is a physical impossibility. Major Rennel, deceived by D'Anville, Duperron, and Tiefenthaler, and in possession of no information that could guide him in the difficulties which they threw in the way of his inquiries, was obliged to trust to his own conjecture, and placed the source of the Ganges, which the Lamas fixed Asiatic Journ.—No. 101.
at 294 deg. N. lat. (within about a degree of the truth), in 33}, or one degree and a quarter higher than D'Anville. He shortened, indeed, the course of the Ganges, but still made it run a course of more than 800 British miles through western Thibet, until it debouched upon the plains of Hindoostan, at Haridwar.
The expedition of Capt. Webb to Gangoutri and Buddreenath, in 1808, undertaken at the suggestion of Mr. Colebrooke, who sagaciously conjectured that the streams which composed the Ganges originated on the southern side of the Great Himalaya, communicated the first authentic correction of these geographical errors; and a subsequent journey performed by Messrs. Moorcroft and Hearsay, in 1813, corroborated that discovery. But while these travellers completely disprove the Lamas' statement, which derived the streams from the Mapang or Manasarowar lake on the northern side of the Himalaya, they confirmed their authority in other respects, namely,
That there are really two such lakes as those mentioned laid down in their mapthat a river actually flows through them very far to the W., and which actually enters Hindoostan—that these lakes are placed with tolerable accuracy relatively to each other—that in respect both of longitude and latitude, they were placed far more correctly than in the maps of D'Anville, Tiefenthaler, Anquetil Duperron, Rennel and Arrowsmith—and, finally, that the other stream which they made the northern branch of the Ganges, actually rises to the N. of these lakes, and to the N.W. of the stream which enters the Mansaroar lake.
The comparative accuracy of the different accounts is seen from the following table: