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accuracy of the Lamas, in opposition to several theories and statements. In Moorcroft's map, no streams are represented as entering the Mansaroar lake from the east, or north, or west, but three streams are delineated as running into it north from the Heemalleh. In his opinion it had no outlet, as he had carefully examined it round from the Lama monastery on the N.W. to the Krishna on the S., and found no outlet. All the maps, on the faith of that of the Lamas', had represented a stream issuing from its western extremity into the Lanken, or Rawanhrad, and the Pundit who accompanied Moorcroft and Hearsay, strenuously asserted the same, which was also corroborated by a Lataki traveller, then upon the spot. A writer in the Quarterly Review, in his examination of Moorcroft's travels, in order to reconcile these jarring accounts, imagines that the outlet of the Mansaroar lake was on the east, and that Moorcroft had inverted the position of these lakes; that, in his opinion, the Rawanhrad is the eastern, and the Mansaroar the western lake, and that in this way Tiefenthaler would be right in making the western river the Setledge, and that consequently the Gogra would be the eastern river, or that which is seen east from the Rawanhrad. If this were really the case, the land between these two lakes would be the connecting ridge between the Hecmalleh and the Caillas, or Kentaisse ranges, and the dividing crest, or elevated ground, sending off the Setledge to the N.W., and the Gogra and Sanpoo to the S. E.; and would, moreover, also in this particular, flatly contradict the Lamas' map, which not only connects the lakes together, by making the eastern send off its surplus waters into the western lake, by the Lank Tchu, but also derives a number of tributary streams from the converging slope of the two chains on the S.E., into the same lake. But, as facts are superior in value to all hypothetical reasoning, both Moorcroft, and his reviewer and commentator, have since been found wrong, and the Lamas' map perfectly correct, respecting the communication of the two lakes. Mr. Webb, who has since that time so assiduously and meritoriously prosecuted his geographical inquiries and geodesic labours, amidst the stupendous ridges of the Heemalleh, had an interview with the Chief of Takklacote, who informed him that the Mansaroar, or Mapang lake, had a western outlet (frequently dry however), into the Rawanhrad, or Lanken, and that upwards of 100 streams fall into it from the converging ranges to the S.E.
The importance of Mr. Moorcroft’s discoveries in these parts, can be appreciated by observing the following
table of discrepancies in the accounts which different authorities furnish as to the position of Ludak : Lamas' map ...... 30.52 N.L 74.47 E.L. D'Anville's do.... 83 do. 77.17 do. Rennel's do. ...... 34.30 do. 77.20 do. Arrowsmith's do. 35 do. 78.10 do. Elphinstone's do. 37 do. 78.10 do. Fraser's do.......... 32 do. 76.32 do. The writer has deemed it necessary to enter upon a serious refutation of the story of the Cow's mouth (Gaomuchi), or subterraneous aperture, through which the Ganges was supposed to rush out of the Himalaya. This is certainly a work of supererogation: no fact is now better established than that this story is a mere invention; though attempted to be bolstered up by the testimony of a learned Pundit who accompanied a modern traveller. The fact, however, is that the Lamas' map contains no authority for this story: they “left the river to find its way, in the usual manner, by a pass, or gap, and never troubled themselves about subterraneous perforation;” which Major Rennel supposed to have been effected by the river through the granite base of the mountains ! Another point incidentally touched upon in this article, is the etymon of the appellation Thibet, applied in Hindoostan to this part of the country. No new light is, however, diffused upon this subject, and perhaps never will be. Entering upon the last division, the author quotes an extract from a report made to the Asiatic Society of Paris, by Messrs. Saint Martin and Klaproth, which appeared in the Journal Asiatique for March 1823; wherein it is stated that the source of the Sutluj, in lake Manasarowar, was marked in the chart of Anquetil Duperron, and was consequently known long before Mr. Moorcroft's visit; and that the source of the Ganges in Gangoutri appeared in Tiefenthaler's chart, whilst all the English geographers, till 1812, adopted the error of D'Anville, making the Ganges arise out of lake Lanka, in
western Thibet. It is therefore contended, that the honour of making these facts known, “belongs to the Germans and French, not to the English, who appropriate to themselves, at present, the whole merit of the discovery.” The author bestows, and we think justly, some severe remarks upon the illiberal spirit which seems to possess the continental literati; and in opposition to the claim of Tiefenthaler, observes, 1st. That Gangoutri is not the true source of the Ganges, which Fraser and Hodgson (whose account must have been known by the French reporters, though not referred to by them), traced higher. 8d. That the Jesuit has placed Gangoutri more than 140 English miles to the north of its true parallel, and about 100 miles to the west of its true longitude. 3d. That Tiefenthaler, contrary to the inference obviously intended to be furnished by the reporters, never visited Gangoutri at all ! for which we have the express authority of his editor, Anquetil Duperron: “D'autant qu'il n'a pas Été lui-méme a la source du Gange, que présente sa carte”. A The Jesuit, himself, in describing the source of the Ganges, uses the expression, “according to the relation of judicious persons,” which clearly implies that his account was not verified by actual observation. It is true he discredits the story of the Cow's mouth; but the Lamas' map is equally free from that adulteration: on the other hand, the Jesuit's description comprehends what certainly does not exist; namely, a cataract, and a rocky cleft. If, however, the Jesuit was the discoverer of the source of the Gangoutribranch (which it is plain enough he was not), this stream is not the source of the Ganges, which cannot be said to be discovered until the higher branch, called the Jhannevie, be traced. All accounts agree that this is not only the largest, but the most distant stream. But what shall we say to the claim of Anquetil Duperron,
the mere publisher of Tiefenthaler’s materials? It is pretty evident that the machinery is put in motion on his account, and that Messrs. Saint Martin and Klaproth would have suffered the Jesuit's discoveries to sink quietly into oblivion, but that there was some prospect, if they could force Tiefenthaler into notice with Duperron fastened to his skirts, that their own country might find a pretext (which would be quite enough), to dispute the title of those indefatigable British travellers, who have ascended heights more elevated than Saussure and Humboldt, and whose services to geographical science are too generally acknowledged to fear the effects of foreign jealousy. We shall close our review of this article with the following extract, wherein the writer puts home the question to the reporters themselves.
Let us reverse the case, and suppose the French Government, in India, to have enjoyed the same ample means for the extension of geographical science in that extensive region, and to have used them liberally for that very purpose, and to have published a compte rendu of these discoveries; and suppose, further, that an Asiatic Society had existed in London, and to have appointed two of their most respectable members to draw up a report concerning the truth and value of these discoveries, and that these reporters had declared that they were of no value, and that they had been anticipated by some such person as Tiefenthaler, whose materials had been brought up into the form of a memoir by some Englishman. We now ask, what would have been the feelings of the French and Continental Literati 2 Would not every Journal, Review, and Bibliothèque have been put in requisition, and enlisted in the service to refute the charge, vindicate their claim, assert their right, to the honour of prior discovery 2 Would they not have exclaimed cum una et consentiente voce against the injustice, the partiality, and the prejudice of the British? Would they not have said, that, as the British had already monopolized the commerce of the world, they also by such conduct plainly showed their ardent and selfish wish to monopolize its literature and science? If such would have been their feelings, can they blame the expression of similar feelings in us, when they have declared, as from the
tripos, that our countrymen, and we, as represented by them, after all their laborious exertions in the cause of science in that region, have no claim, no right, no title, to the credit of such discoveries?
The Modern Traveller. — Palestine. Parts I. and II. London: 1824.
The collections and compilations of modern travels, which have hitherto been published, are generally in volumes of a most inconvenient size, and are likewise very expensive; neither do they contain the valuableinformation communicated by the latest travellers. A work, therefore, on the plan of the one we are here announcing, had become a great desideratum in English literature. As yet, only the two first parts have appeared, containing a description of Palestine, and a summary of the various modern travels in that interesting country. Judging from the specimen before us, we feel ourselves justified in recom
mending the work to our readers, as promising to be the most judicious and interesting publication of the kind that has ever fallen under our notice.
The plan is; first, to give a general description of a country, and a brief historical notice of it: secondly, to furnish accounts of the various parts that have been passed over by Europeans or others: and thirdly, to select the most remarkable places or objects for particular description. This plan enables the compiler to bring into a focus, on all occasions, the information communicated by the most intelligent travellers.
We shall only add, on the present occasion, that we look forward with much pleasure to the continuation of the series; and particularly to the accounts, already advertised, of Syria, Arabia, and Egypt, countries which obviously lie within our peculiar province.
31iterary and 195ilogopijical g/mtelligence.
ASIATIC society or calcutta.
On Wednesday evening, the 12th of November, a Meeting of the Asiatic Society was held at the Society's House, Chowlinghee, Mr. Harington, the President, in the Chair. At this Meeting, Messrs. B. Roberts and F. P. Strong, were elected Members of the Society. Vice Presidents. – According to anmual custom, the members present then proceeded to ballot for Vice Presidents, when the following gentlemen were re. elected : Major General Hardwicke, and W. B. Bayley, Esq. Committee of Papers.-The Committee of Papers was next ballotted for, and the following members were re-elected:— James Atkinson, T. Bently, James Calder, Dr. Carey, G. J. Gordon, Capt. A. Locket, and Courtney Smith. Mr. Andrew Sterling and Dr. Hare, were also elected members of the Committee, in the room of Capt. Hodgson and the Rev. J. Parson. A variety of snakes and reptiles, preserved in Alcohol, were presented by Capt. Herman. A Hindoostanee matchlock was presented by Mr. Gibbon. The ScCretary read a letter from Mr.
Moorcroft, who is now on a deputation to Central Asia, dated Cashmeer, the 20th of July, 1823, announcing his having dispatched to the Society, a copy of the Rajah Taringenee. Mr. Moorcroft's inquiries had been long zealously directed to this object. He met with many abstracts of the work, but disfigured and corrupted, according to the Hindoo or Mussulman notions and faith of the copyers. The genuine chronicle of Cashmeer in Sanscrit, the Rajah Taringenee, as it is called, is reported to have been so common formerly, that almost every Hindoo family of respectability possessed a copy; but from the accidents of time, it has become so scarce, that not more than two or three were known to be in existence.” Mr. Moorcroft was at length successful. Having cured Eshur Das, a Pundit, of a painful affection of the ancle joint, pronounced incurable, the grateful Pundit permitted a copy to be taken from the one in his possession, which was written upon the bark of the birch tree, and bore obvious marks of great antiquity. This copy, which employed ten Pundits for a period of three months, Mr. Moorcroft had collated by other Pundits, and the collated work is now on its way to Calcutta. The Secretary also read a communication from Capt. J. D. Herbert, containing some account of a hot spring, near Monghyr. The hot spring near Monghyr, called Seetacoond, is situated a few miles below that place, by the river side, on a plain bounded to the S.W. by ranges of hills covered with jungle. At no great distance from the well, isolated ridges rise up of inconsiderable elevation; the bare rock assuming a singularly mottled appearance from the action of the atmosphere. Capt. Herbert had not an opportunity of ascertaining the nature of this rock by a persomal examination on the spot, as the unusual rise to which the river had attained, flooded great part of the plain, and rendered the approach difficult. At Benares, however, he had the pleasure of finding, in the very interesting collection of Dr. Yeld, a series of Specimens, collected on the spot by Dr. Adam, from an examination of which, it would appear that Quartz and Quartzose Sandstone, are the prevailing, if not the only rocks. No rock comes to the surface in the immediate vicinity of the well; but near it is a small morass in which the irridescent appearance of the water would seem to indicate the presence of iron. A tank of about 30 feet by 20 has been built to receive and confine the waters of the spring, the sides diminishing by steps down to the well, which is said to be six feet deep. The temperature, the attending Brahmins say, is high during eight months of the year, and sensibly lower during the remaining four. It is variable even in the eight months, and is highest in the cold weather. Capt. Herbert found it 139; but the tank was quite full, and it must be considered that a spring furnishing only a small supply, and exposing so large a surface to the air, would necessarily have its temperature something lower than if the waters were allowed to run off without giving an increased surface of evaporation. Air-bubbles were continually rising to the surface, but there was no possibility of collecting them or ascertaining their nature. There is a cold spring within thirty yards. The water has no taste. It slightly reddens tincture of litmus, the change of colour being barely sufficient to be detected by the method of Dr. Wilson Philip, which makes this a test of great sensibility. The muriatic, sulphuric, nitric, and oxalic acids, prussiate of potass, car
* The fate of this book, Mr. Moorcroft thinks, resembles the fortunes of the country of which it records the history. Tradition states, that in the reign of Mahmood Shah, not many years ago, twclve hundred natives of Cashmeer were entitled to keep palankeens, and that they were all in such good circuinstances, as to enable then to use the privilege. At present, there is not a slusk palenkccm kept by any native of the province.
bonate of ammonia, nitrate of silver, have no effect. Muriate of Barytes produces a scarcely perceptible cloudiness; nitrate of lead, a white precipitate; and super acetate of lead, the same in greater quantity. This latter precipitate is soluble in the nitric acid. From the very low specific gravity(1,002) this water may be judged to contain not so much as one grain of solid matter in three thousand, and perhaps not one in five thousand. It does not appear that it owes its increase of weight to any of the neutral salts generally found in mineral waters, or even to any iron. From the effect on tincture of litmus, it must contain some uncombined acid, or else sulphurated hydrogen. The white precipitate, with the super acetate of lead, excludes the latter substance and confines the test to carbonic, sulphuric, pshosphoric, and boracic acids. Nitrate of silver excludes the first, the precipitate by super acetate of lead being soluble in nitric acid. The second-the third has never been found, Capt. Herbert believes, in mineral waters, but the fourth frequently. In Italy there are several hot springs, it is said, and even small lakes which contain uncombined boracic acid. We may, therefore, observes. Capt. Herbert, regard this spring as similar in its nature and properties. It is worth remarking, that the Italian springs are in the neighbourhood of a valcano. The water of Seetacoond is beautifully clear, and being perfectly tasteless, is generally preferred for consumption to the river water, even when purified by alum. Many have supposed it medicinal in a slight degree; but, judging from the very minute proportion of foreign ingredients it contains, it can scarcely be said to differ from common water. Seetacoond is considered by the Hindoos to be a place of some sanctity.—[Cal. Gov. Gaz.
Boxib AY. Litelt ARY SOCIETY. The Anniversary Meeting of the Literary Society of Bombay was held at their rooms on Monday the 24th Nov., when the following gentlemen were elected Office Bearers and Members of Committees for the ensuing year. President, The Hon. M. Elphinstone. Vice Presidents: His Excellency Lieut. Gen. the Hon. Sir C. Colville, G.C.B.; the Hon. Sir Edw. West, Knt.; the Venerable the Archdeacou George Barnes, D.D.; John Wedderburn, Esq.; John Robert Steuart, Esq. Major Vans Kennedy Secretary. Messrs. Forbes and Co. Treasurers. * Committee of Papers: the President and Vice President; Richard Woodhouse, Esq.; Lieut. Col. Edmund W. Shuldham; Wm. H. Wather, Esq.; Geo. Norton, Esq.; Major Kennedy, Secretary. Committee for the Superintendence of. of the Library, Museum, and Accounts: the Venerable the Archdeacon, President; John Wedderburn, Esq.; James Farish, Esq.; Benjamin Noton, Esq.; John Rt. Steuart, Esq.; Lieut. Jas. J. Robinson; C. J. Fair, Esq.; James Brydon, M.D.; Major Kennedy, Secretary.—[Bom. Gaz., JDec. 3. ASTRONOMICAL society or London. At a meeting of this Society, held on the 12th March, a letter was read from Sir Thomas Brisbane, Governor of New South Wales, to F. Bailey, Esq., accompanied by Mr. Rumker's observations of the Summer Solstice 1823, at Paramatta; the results of which are, For the mean obliquit ar of the ecliptic o 23° 27' 44.” 89 For the latitude of the * a o o place of observation } 33° 48' 42.” 61 Also the mean of twelve months’ me* teorological observations, made at Paramatta between May 1822 and May 1823.
precious metals. The religious zeal of the Spaniards destroyed by fire almost every thing relating to the mythology and history of the Mexicans. The more ponderous sculptures, however, found in the ancient capital, were chiefly employed as foundation stones for the modern city of Mexico.
An immense idol represented as composed of rattle-snakes and human skulls, and smeared with blood, has been found entire, and recognized as a personification of the goddess of war.—From the exhibition with which Mr. Bullock has favoured the public, we should argue that the religious worship of the ancient Mexicans was quite as sanguinary in its character as that of the Hindoos ; there is nothing, however, to lead us to suppose that it was likewise as sensual.
EARTHQuAkre AT CALcutta. A rather smart shock of an earthquake wae experienced yesterday at about ten minutes before twelve. This circumstance was first mentioned to us on the instant under our roof. We did not perceive it on the ground floor, but it was very sensibly felt by every individual in the upper part of the house. At Garden Reach, not only was the motion sufficiently strong to be sensibly felt, but also to agitate the spangles which hang on the wall shades. There were two shocks, and they were accompanied by a low rumbling noise, similar to that experienced in a room over an arched gateway, when a heavy loaded waggon is passing over the stones underneath it.— [Cal. John Bull, Nov. 27.
rarthquake. At sea. Another instance of an earthquake being felt at sea, has been communicated to us by Capt. Miller, of the Layton. On the voyage from London to Bombay, on the 27th July last, the Layton being in S. lat. 35' 19", not far to the westward of Tristran d'Acunha, at halfpast eleven P.M., a shock of an earthquake was felt so strongly, that it awoke every person in the ship; it was a trembling motion, similar to that produced by a ship forcing its way over a wreck or a coral bed. The hands were turned up, and every part of the vessel examined, but no injury of any kind could be discovered; the trembling was accompanied with a hissing noise. On the following night, at about half past two, another and more violent shock was felt, which lasted a few seconds, but not so long as the first. On the 31st, in lat. 36' 51", the Layton having in the mean time run between five and six degrees to the eastward, the Dutch brig Phelentait, bound to Batavia, was spoken with, and her master reported that the