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worship shall be exclusively the sub- The cardinals enter the church jects of present ingniry. You with a vast train of servants, one will recollect that we now draw near carries the hat, another the umbrella, the period fixed by the later Chris- a third the cloak, besides a considtians for the birth of our Saviour, erable number of well dressed deand as that event or the anniversary pendants. When the cardinal of it approaches, the ostentation of kneels, his whole cortege, or retiCatholick worship increases. This que, kneel and pray with him. AfSunday, being the first in the Advent ter the service is finished, the caror coming of our Lord, is celebrated digals proceed one by one to pay in Rome by the communion, which their obeisance to the statue of St. was this year performed in great style Peter ; (which, by the way, was by the cardinals in absence of the made out of a statue of Jupiter Capope, who has gone to Paris to con- pitolinus) a genteel man, dreseed in secrate the new emperour. I should black, precedes his excellency, to vainly attempt to give you a correct. wipe with a white handkerchief the idea of the magnificence of the Ro- foot of the statue, which had been man Catholick "worship in this its soiled by the constant embraces of principal seat. In St. Peter's, the or- the vulgar. The cardinal then addinary number of canons, who assist yances, kisses it, rubs his forehead at publick worship, is not less than against the toes, says a short prayer, sixty. They are clothed in sumptue again kisses it, and departs to reous apparel, and chaunt the grand peat the same ceremonies in anothmass with dignity and imposing ef er chapel. When the vulgar, or fect. The chapel, in which this mass, even laymen of rank, say their is performed, is splendid beyond con- prayers, they fall down on the bare ception. St. Peter's contains twelve marble floor : not so the lofty cardi. or fourteen of these chapels, all of nal; he is preceded by a gentleman which are rich and magnificent. usher, who drops a soft silk purple
In the Gregorian chapel they velvet cushion, upon which his sam prepare the communion table, and cred knecs softly recline. The four cardinals assisted at the ceremo- service finished, the cardinals retire ny. These cardinals arrive at St. in the same ostentatious style, in Peter's in a style superiour to that, which they came. which any crowned head in Europe When ope reflects, that all the assumeson common occasions. They pre,eminence claimed by the church have two superb coaches for each of of Rome, its popes and its cardinals, them, both of a bright crimson colour is derived from the idea of their berichlyornamented with gold, with four ing the direct, and only legitimate servants behind the first, and two be descendants of the primitive church hind the second coach. The car and of the apostles : that they dinals are dressed in rich purple aver, that all the apostolick powers robes of the most precious kind, and privileges, all the pre-eminence with a hat of crinison. Their train, and authority, which were vested in which is very long, is upheld by gen- those most excellent, glorious and. tlemen, arrayed in black silk gowns, brave defenders of our faith, have like those used by our clergymen, devolved upon them, one camot and they appear to be, and I believe help contrasting, the pure, modest, are, men of good manners, and I humble manners, the simplicity and dare say of science and erudition. poverty of the one, with the refined
ostentatious, magnificent, proud be. so only by rendering them ignorant, haviour, the riches and luxuries of See then, in two words, the great the other. Who would believe, that secret of Catholick infiuence, igthe present splendid claimants of norance and its sister, superstition. the apostolick functions were the But this you will say is commes imitators of the humble and lowly places you are repeating the fine Saviour, who often knew not where sayings of Voltaire, and a thousand to lay his head, who despised, and others, who have said them much taught his followers to contemn the better. Not at all.-I came into forms and pageantry of this world ; Italy free from prejudices. My that they pretend to be the succes. ideas, feelings, wishes are all against sors of those heroick disciples and the New School, all averse to inno. inspired heroes, who suffered exile, vation. I was and still am disposed persecution, poverty, distress, death, to overlook, to pardon the errours for the religion, of which they were of papacy ; but I cannot, in my the worthy and disinterested profes- conscience, refrain from censuring sors? In place of setting at nought the proud luxury of these Roinan the honours and pleasures, the vani. lords, or the miserable blindness of ties and luxuries of this life, youi their tools. must search every thing which is When I see men believe, because rich, magnificent, costly, luxurious, they are told they must, the most of high value amongst men, all the absurd legends, infinitely more rie fine arts, all which can contribute diculous than the doctrine of witchto pride, splendour and human gran- craft, when I see indulgences daily deur, in the palaces of cardinals, offered for sale, when I observe popes and their relations. What is even the talents of men of genius the Vatican, what St. Peter's, but employed in pictures to represent the coverings to the splendid mau. modern saints, Capucins, Franciscans solea of deceased popes, little if any and others, as curing the blind and inferiour to those of Augustus, of even raising the dead, when I see Trajan, or Adrian ?
the Catholick doctrine of purgatory One might forgive this splendour, represented with all the eloquence this perversion of the first principles of the pencil, and perceive souls rais. of christianity, if it was not accom- ed by prayers, after punishment from panied with the impious claims of hell to heaven, (for such representaexclusive sanctity. But what can tions have I seen) how can one help you say, of it, when you perceive its feeling a degree of indignation at effects in society ? In order to maine men, who can countenance, or who tain a system so flattering to pride, do not condemn errour's so fatal to 80 gratifying to human ambition, the genuine practice of the gospel yet so repuguant to reason and the principles? What people will ever correct principles of christianity, be willing to mortify their unruly inen must be made dupes. Such passions, to live a life of self-denial, expenses can be defrayed only from to wage a perpetual warfare with the treasury of tyranny ; it must be sin, who believe, that a few masses, a iz ranny over the purses and the a death-bed repentance, and an ab. bocios, or over the minds of men, solution by a priest, who knows over the purses at any rate. This nothing of their state of mind, can can be effected only by making men wipe away every transgression ? t!!perstitious, and they can be made Do you need other arguments in
proof of the dangerous security, in St. Luke, whom the Catholicks gay, which the Catholicks of Italy find was a sculptor and painter,) we will themselves? You will see it in their notice only those cases, which occur habits and manners. The Sunday in Rome, and which, being under the is with them a day of gaiety and iinmediate notice of the father of the festivity even at Rome. There are faithful, he must be responsible for. no sermoirs, to enlighten or instruct; There is a picture of the Virgin no exhortations at most of the near the house, in which we reside, in churches ; no conveniences for the the open street upon a wall (a thing worshippers. The priests are con- not uncommon here) which attractceived to do all. The people enter ed my attention, from having observ. at all periods of worship, stay as long ed that all descriptions of persons, as they please, pray when they the better informed as well as vulgar, please, and depart with joyous and pulled off their hats with great devo. happy faces ; convinced that a kiss tion as they passed. Upon inquiry, of St. Peter's foot and the holy wa. I found, that this particular image ter, has expiated all the sins of the was called Notre Dame des Miracles, week. Such never was, and never our lady of miracles, and it is aver. can be the design of the gospel. If red, that she has been known to perthe Protestants do not practice bet. form a great many. ter, the greater will be their condem. There is another of this kind near nation, because they certainly think St. Peter's, where the grateful pa. more correctly.
tients, who have been restored by They know that our holy religion this particular image of the Virgin, is of the heart, and not of ceremoni have offered up their praises and ac. als only. Perhaps I ought to ex- knowledgments by paintings sugo cept some of our own sects, who pended around the chapel, descrip: place as little reliance on good works, tive of the particular calamity or c. and as much on unintelligible myste- vil, from which they were delivered ry, as the Papists. I have been puz. by the influence of this image. You zled to know, how the Catholicks see drawings of legs, hands and othe get rid of the commandment, which er parts of the human body, which forbids them to worship any gra- have been put 011, after being cut off, ven image in the likeness of any or otherwise restored miraculously, thing, that is in the heavens above," "When you add to this the devowhen it is notorious that they do tion paid to St. Peter's bronze statworship many graven or sculptured ye, which is not paid to any other images. In vain shall they say, that of St. Peter's likenesses, with which they worship the person typified by Rome abounds, I think I am justhe image, and not the image itself, tilied in saying, that the worship of because, “out of their own mouths the papists at Ronie bears very hard I will condemn them.” If they upon a breach of the euipmanlinene worshipped the person, and not the above cited. . '. image, then all images of the same Another remark on the religioa person would be held in equal vene- of this nation, and I believe so: ration, but so far is this from being will be glad that live closed. true, " (without mentioning our Lady In no place, in 10 quarter of of Loretto, and the Virgin of Bon Europe, or I biliers of the torld, logna, which are worshipped be. do you see so much poieris, cistress, Cailee they are the workmanship of sach troly hea-bisang scoape, as
at Rome. In vàin do the sovereign parently so neglected. Pray heavpontiffs intimate upon their coins, en that the government are not anthat the poor you have always swerable for this neglect; it would be with you ;" the maxim is forgotten too weighty a burden ! ! as soon as uttered, and in no part of a
Yours, &c. the civilized world are the poor ap..
ABSTRACT OF INTERESTING FACTS RELATING TO
THE NEW TESTAMENT.
The following abstract of some of the most important facts, rclating to the Cana and the Text of the New Testament, we presume, will be generally interesting, especially to thosc, who have not leisure to peruse large works on this subject No man ought to be deterred from reading any thing, which relates to the au
thority of that book, frein which we all profess to take our faith, by the notion that it is the proper busioess of theologians The information in the following numbers is important to every man, who has an English or a Grock Testament. L is an excellent abstract of the principal points in the history of of the text.)
Sa. 1.-Canon of the New Testa
the history of Jesus Christ, are call
ed the Gospel, or Good news, a litment, Distinction between the dis
eral translation of the 'word 'svariye puted and the undisputed Booksa .
álov, as these sacred writings con"The Canon of the New Testa. tain the best tidings, which could be ment is a collection of books, written commuộicated to mankind. by the apostles, or by men, who were . The canon of scriptore is either companions of the apostles, and who the Received Canon or the True. wrote under their inspection.
The Received Canon comprehends • These books are called the canon, the whole of that collection of books, from a Greek word, which signifies which is contained in the New Tesa rule, because to a christian they tament, and which are generally re. constitute the only proper and suffi- ceived by christians, as of apostolical cient rule of faith and practice.' authority. The True Canon consiste
These books are also called The of those books only, the genuineness Scriptures, or The Writings, because of which is established upon satisthese Writings are held by christians factory evidence.. . ! in the highest estimation. They When, or by whom, the received are the scriptures of the New Testa. Canon was formed is not certainly ment, or, more properly speaking, known. It has been commonly beof the New Covenant, because they lieved, that it was fixed by the coule contain a complete account of the cil of Laodicea, A.D. 361, but this christian dispensation, which is de. is certainly a mistake. The first scribed as a covenant, by which Al. catalogue of canonical booke, which mighty God engages to bestow é. is now extant, was drawn up byOnternal life upon the penitent and gen, A. D 210. It leaves out the virtuous believer in Christ. For this Epistles of James and Jude. reason the christian scriptures, and "The genuineness and authority of particularly the books, which contain every book in the New Testament
rests upon its own specifick evidence. itive christians in forming the Canon, No person, nor any body of men, and their solicitude not to admit any has any right authoritatively to de- book into the code of the New Testermine concerning any book that it tament, of the genuineness of which is canonical and of apostolical au- they had not the clearest evidence. thority. Every sincere and diligent It is a distinction of great imporinquirer has a right to judge for him- tance to all, who desire to appreciate self, after due examination, what he is rightly the value and a thority of to receive as the rule of his faith and the several books, which compose practice. The learned Jeremiah the received Canon. Jones on the Canon, and Dr Lardner's laborious work upon the Crede o
Sec. 2.--Brief riccount of the received ibility of the Gospel History contain
Text.--Editions of the Greck leso the most accurate and copious infor
tament by Cardinal Ximenes, by
Erasmus, Robert Stephens, Beza, mation upon this subject. The most important distinction
and Elzevir. of the books of the New Testament A text perfectly correct, that is, is that mentioned by Eusebius bish. which sball in every particular exop of Cesarea in the third book of actly correspond wish the autograph his Ecclesiastical History. He dis. of the apostles and evangelists, is tinguishes them into the books which not to be expected We must conwere universally acknowledged, tent ourselves with approximating, . opisayurve, and those which though as nearly as possible, to the original. generally received were by some The utility of this is too obvious to disputed, AYTIME QUEVE.
need either proof or illustration, The books universally acknowl.. The Received Text of the New edged are, the four Gospels, the Testament is that, which is in gen. Acts of the Apostles, thirteen E. eral use, pistles of Paul, the first Epistle of The degree of credit, which is due Peter, and the first Epistle of John. to the accuracy of the Received “ These only,” says Dr. Lardner*, Text, will appear from the following should be of the highest authoritù, brief detail of facts. from which doctrines of religion may The New Testament was originbe proved.”
ally written in Greek: perhaps with The disputed books, aytider ouevol, the exception of the Gospel of are the Epistle to the Hebrews, Matthew, and the Epistle to the the Epistle of James, the second of Hebrews, of which books, however, . Peter, the second and third of John, the earliest copies extant are in the the Epistle of Jude, and the Revela- Greek language. tion, " These," says Dr. Lardner, Previously to the Reformation in “should be allowed to be publickly the sixteenth century, the. Greek read in christian assemblies, for the copies of the New Testament were · edification of the people, but not be grown into disuse : the priests used alleged as affording alone sufficient an imperfect Latin translation in the proof of any doctrine."*
publick offices of religion, and all These distinctions prove the great translations into the vulgar tongue pains, which were taken by the prim. for the use of the common people.
were prohibited or discouraged. Lardner's Supplement, vol. 1. p. 29: In the beginning of the sixteenth ch. ii. $ 4.
century Cardinal Ximeixes printed at Vol. V. No. X. 3T