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.20 Pilatè again declaress he found, no Fault in him I 847 many Things this Day in a Things-Today.ion His Account in a Dream (e) and Sect. 188. Dream, because of him. have had such terrible Views represented to my

Imagination in my Sleep, this very Morning that it can
I cannot but look upon it as something Divine,
and conclude that if thou dost upon any Terms
consent to his Death, it will be attended with

dreadful Consequences to thyself and thy Family. John XIX. 4. Pilate - Piletë: therefore, alarmed by Such a Message as John XIX. therefore went forth again, and faith unto them, Bebold; this, went into the Palace himself, to see what 4. I bring him forth to you, they were doing with the Prisoner á, and when he that ye may know that I find beheld with strong Emotion all those Indignities no Fault in him. I niit

and Torments which Jesus had borne, jand saw
how severely the Soldiers had scourged him, think-
ing that the Sight of him in fo Tad a Condition
might move the Jews to Compassion, the deter-
mined to make one Trial more. And accordingly
he came out again to the Door of the Payilion
round which they were assembled,j) and having

ordered Jesus to be led, thither, he faid to them, d's WE595.1917 ild just before he appeared ; Behold, i I am bringing 3.. OS !() o vlas."

him out to you again, that ye may know and observe and and who

it, that I can find no Fault in him, tho' the Tor

IDUL, I
tures he has now undergone are such, as must
furely ihayė brought him to Confeffion, if he

were indeed guilty. So, yo n ot gir
5 Then came Jesus forth, Then, as he fpake these Words, i ejus came out 5
wearing the Crown of of the Prætoriumas wearing the Thorny Crown, and
Thorns, and the Purple
Robe. And Pilate faith in- the Purple Robe, now also died in his own Blood,
to them, Behold the Man, which streamed forth from all parts of his Body:

And) [Pilatela faid to them, Beholdtậe Man !. View
himi attentively; and when you see what dreadful
Things the poor unhappy Greature has suffered,

let that content you ; for surely, considering his .....3. :

% siis l ibisi",,";', 'Innocence, ? obe u vu ngarvan watch cria',

Sild i lt santa fe porno binnig nog in to smyse (e) I have suffered many Things To-day on his Account in a Dream.] Perhaps the Word Snuspov, To-day, may imply, that she had dreamt these Things that Morning, fince Pilate role; and as the Heathens imagined those Dreams most significant, which came, about Break of Day, the might on that Account lay the greater Stress upon them. Yanferius thinks, "The had now a Representation of thosé Calamities, which afterwards befell Pilate and his family. (See Note (r) in the Improvement.), But it is an unaccountable 'Thought of Mr. Fleming, that the Devil might be the Author of this Dream, by which he might endeavour to prevent the Death of Christ according to the Prophecies. 'His Two Arguments, from her calling Christ a Man, (which is merely taken from our Verfion, for in the Original it is only to fixpia Breuvage that righteous One) and from the Disquiet wþich."'this Dream gave her, are too inconsiderable to need a particular Reply. See Flem, Vol. ii. pag. 325. Z zz2

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Joba XIX. thanë

548 The Jews infA on bis Death, as making himself the Son of GOD. Sect. 188. Innocence, he has suffered already much more m y than enough. .

When therefore the Chief Priests and [their] . 6 When the Chief Priests attending Officers saw him, fearing left the People

therefore and Officers faw

him, they cried out, saying, should relent, they presently renewed their Excla- Crucify him, crucify binos mations, and eagerly cried out as before, saying, We know the Man sufficiently : Away with him to the Cross; crucify [him,] crucify [him ;] and let Sentence be passed upon the Wretch immediately.

Pilate on this faid to them, If ye are thus reso -Pilate faith unto them, lute and inexorable, I leave him in your Hands Take ye him, and_crucify to dispose of him as you think fit : Take ye bim

him: for I find no Fault ja

him.
therefore, if it must be fo, and crucify [ bim
yourselves; but I desire to discharge myself from
having any thing to do in it, either by myself,
or by my Roman Guards ; for, as I have told
you again and again, I find no Fault in bim wos-

thy of any such Punishment.
7 The Jeros then anfwered bim, There is no Room , The Jews answered

to represent him as a faultlefs Perfon, nor any him, We have a law, and Reason to be backward to condemn him ; but because he made himself the

by our Law he ought to die, these Objections you have made oblige us to men- Son of God. tion one Circumstance, which for the Horror of it we would willingly have concealed : We bave a Divine Law which we received from Heaven, by which Blasphemy is forbidden on the highest Penalties ; and by this our Law be ought to die, tho' he were not chargeable with Sedition and Treason, because he has made bimself the Son of the most High GOD, in such a sense as no Cream ture can be; and this he declared but this Morning in open Court. (Compare Mat. xxvi. 63, 640

Mark xiv. 61, 62. and Luke xxii. 70. pag. 526.) 8 When Pilate therefore heard this Expresion, be 8 When Pilate therefore was still more afraid than before (f); for the the more afraid;

the heard that Saying, he was Romans

He was still more afraid than before.] Tho' I think, with Mr. Gradeck, and feveral others, the Interpretation given in the Paraphrase the most natural; yet I cannot forbear mentioning that of Mr. Lardner, who thinks, he was afraid of a Sedition among the young from his Knowledge of their great Obstinacy in any thing, in which Religion might seem to be concerned : And he adds, he might be the more reasonably alarmed on this Head, as fince the Beginping of bis Government he had met with Two remarkable Instances of their Stiffness ;. one in an Attempt to bring the Image of Cæfar into Jerufalem; the other in a Design he had formed of supplying the City with Water at the Expence of the Sacred Trees fury of the Temple. See Lardner's Eredibility, Vol. i. pag. 377.

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· Pilate is afraid, and examines bim again.

549 Romans believed many Poetical Stories of Men be- Sect. 188. gotten by their Deities, and thought them a Kind u nul of Demi-Gods, who could not be injured with

out engaging their Divine Parents in the Quarrel." 9. And went again into And therefore apprehending that his Wife's Dream , the Judgment-Hall, and faith

might also take its Rife from such a Cause, be
unto Jesus, Whence art
thou? But 'Telus gave him. entered again into the Palace, and taking him
no. Answer,

afide, he said to Jefus, Tell me plainly, from.
wbence thou camest, and from whom art thou
descended ? and what is this Divine Original,
which thou art charged with claiming (8) But

Yesus, knowing that his Innocence was already
apparent, even to the Conviction of Pilate's Con-

science, gave him no Answer to that Question..
10 Then faith Pilate un. Then Pilate in Surprize said to him, What, 10%
to him, Speakest thou not
unto, me? Knoweft thou dost thou make me no Reply, and not so much as
not, that I have power to speak to me in such a Circumstance as this, in which
arucify thee, and have. Pow- thy Life is fo.cvidently concerned ? Dost thou not..
ar to releafe thee?:

know, that I have power and Authority to crucify
thee, and. bave Power, to release thee, if I please,
notwithstanding, all the clamorous. Demands of

thine Enemies?
rr Jesus answered, Thou Yesus calmly replied, Thou couldt have no Power. It
could have no Power at all
against me, except it were at all against me, except it were given thee. from
given thee from. Above:: Above, from the God of Heaven,, whose Pro-

there: vidence. I acknowledge in all these Events. (b) :

Therea

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(8) Whence art thou ?] It is strange, Mr. Locke should think, (as he does, in his Reafontableness of Christianity, Vol. i. pag. 133.) that Christ declined giving him an Answer, left when he heard he was born at Bethlehem, he should have any such Apprehensions as Herod had entertained. Pilate probably knew nothing at all of that Prophecy, as Herod himself indeed did not, till he had learnt it from the Jewiß Scribes, whom he consulted on Christ's Birth. (Mat. ii. 4. 5,. 6. Vol. i. pag. 70.) The Answer which our Lord had, made to his former Enquiries, thewed how far he was from declining any Danger; and the true Reason of his present Silence was, that Pilate's unsteady Conduct rendered him unworthy of farther Information.

(b) Thou could have no Power at all against me, except iti were given thee from Abave.] Some have thought, that the Word awer, from Above, refers to the Situation of the Temple, which. stood much higher than the Prætorium; and that it is, as if Jefus had said, " I know, “ that whatever thou doft againft. me, is only in Consequence of the Sentence passed in. “ yonder Court held Above ; so that their Guilt is greater than thine." But tho''this would very well account for the Connection of the latter. Part of the Verf, I cannot think it altor gether just, for had Providence permitted Pilate to seize Chrift, as one dangerous to. Cæsar's Dignity, he would have had as much Power of putting him to Death, as he now bad.. Itis therefore much more reasonable to suppose, it refers to the Permission of God's: Provi. dénce. No Thought was more proper to the Occasion ; and I think,, the Interpretation 15 bave given to the latter Claufe in this View, is natural, tho' not very common. But if any. are not satisfied with it,, they may consider, whether dra málo may not be connected with the

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II.

550 The Jews declare, he is not Cæsar's Friend, if he let him go. Sect. 188. Therefore be who has delivered me to thee,' even the therefore he that delivered

ewith High-Priest, and his Council, having farme unto John XIX.

greater Sin,
XIX. greater Opportunities of knowing him and his

Law, bath the greater and more aggravated Sin ;
- yet thou thyself canst not but know, that on the "? .

a Principles of natural Equity, an Innocent Person

3. ), sid. ought not to be given up to popular Fury.'' 12 And from this Time Pilate was fo fat satisfied 12 And from thenceforth of the Injustice of the Prosecution, and of the

Pilate sought to release him:

but the Jews cried out, say. Innocence of Jesus, that he endeavoured the more ing, If thou let this Manzo, earnestly to release him. But the Yews ftill insisted thou art not Cesar's Friend: on his passing Sentence on him to be crucified: whosoever maketh himself

a King, speaketh against and apprehensive of the Governor's Design, that

they effectually might put a Stop to his Intention
oi of discharging him, they eagerly cried out, saying,

If thóu let this Man go off with his Life, thou
art not Cæsar's Friend, tho thou beareft his Com :.;. .'
mission, and representeft his Person; for every one
that makes himself a King of Judea, Ipeaks against
Cæfar' our Emperor, and in effect arraigns the

Legality of his Government here."
13 When Pilate therefore heard that Speech, he, 13. When Pilate there-
was very much alarmed, as he well knew

fore heard that Saying, he

brought Jefus forth, and fat suspicious a' Prince Tiberius was, and how many down in the Judgment-Seat, Spies he kept on all his Officers, that nothing in a Place that is called the

Pavement, but in the Hedone or permitted by them m any of brew, Gabbatha. the Provinces, which could at all interfere with his Authority (i): And that he might not then be charged with any.Want. of Zeal for Cæsar's '!!'.'.""!.. Interest, bebro

be cherche une part if the plana nabinili. , ale), '

be brouge Jus DUL OT me, Ialace again, t'ia pre is and once more sate down on the Tribunal, which i..! was then lerected (as we before observed,) with diiii. out the Palace, in a Place called in Greek Lithostraton, or the Pavement, on Account of a beauini tiful Piece of Mosaic Work with which the Floor

batba, or the High-Place, because it ftood on an
il ..," jistne id) iloi Emi-.:.;"

orned; but in Hohes with which the Flo

was called Gaba

Eeginning of the Verse, so that it might be translated, Thou' couldj bave no Power at all.
against me, unless it were given thee from Above for this purpose. (Compare Note ()
John vii. 21. pag. 49.),

(i) As he well knew how fufpicious a Prince Tiberius' was, &c.] Every Body that knows the Character of Tiberius, especially as illustrated by Suetonius in his excellent Hiftory, will see how naturally Pilate might be apprehensive on this Head.

head.

.

Hiiw (&) in

About the Third Hour Pilate brings him out as their King. 551 So.. : Eminence, so that the Judge fitting on his Thronė Sect. 188.

. there, might be heard and seen by a considerable

Number of People (k).,
14 And it was the Pre. And it was then the Preparation of the Paslon 14
paration of the Passover, and ver, or the Sixth Day of the Week, and confe-
about the Sixth Hour : and

quently the Day which fell before the Paschal
Sabbath, which was observed with some peculiar
Solemnity ; (see John xix. 3 1. Sect. 192.) and the
Morning was so far advanced, that it was) drawe
ing on apace towards the Sixtb Hour, and was
now about the Third Hour, or Nine in the
Morning (I), which obliged them to dispatch,

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* (*) In Hebrew, Gabbatha.] There are various Etymologies of this Word. I think the most probable is that, which derives it from nas, elevavit, and so it intimates its being raised on high. It was, perhaps, a Kind of Stage, or Scaffold, in the Midít a spacious Area belonging to the Palace, in which the Governor might place himself, on publick, and especially on judicial Occasions. It plainly appears from the Connection of the Words, that it was not in his House, but somewhere without, probably in some open Place.

(1) Was drawing on apace towards the Sixth Hour, and was now about the Third Hour, &c.] Difficulties, which seem to me quite invincible, attend the Reading which is generally received, [It was about the Sixth Hour,), whether we reckon it, according to the Roman Method of Computation, Six in the Morning, or according to the Jewish Computation, Twelve at Noon. The best Commentators I know, (and among the rest of late, Dr. Guyse,) think the whole Difficulty of reconciling these Words of John with Mark, who tells us, (chap. xv. 25. Sezt. 189.) that Christ was crucified at the Third Hour ; and with Matthew and Luke, ...!11.1 who exactly agree with him in fixing the Time of that Darkness which happened while Chris hung on the Cross ;; (compare Mat: xxvii. '45: Luke xxiii. 44. and Mark xv. 33. Seet. 191.) is easily solved by undesstanding it, according to the Roman Account, of Six in the Morning. But as John was a Jew, and elsewhere seems to use the Jewish Account, (Fonn i. 39. iv. 6.). that very Suppofition is in general improbable. Or if, out of Regard to the Considerations, which the learned, but here dubious and perplexed, Zeltnerus has urged, (see Zeltner. Hor. Pilat. pag. 14, & leq.) we were to grant it in general a supposable Case ; very strong Objections will lie against supposing it here. For tho' we thould, with many Criticks, take it for granted, that the Palover here, fell late in April, (which was the latest it could fall,) the Sun would not rise at Ferufalem till near Five ó Clock, and one cannot suppose the Sanhedrim assembled till`about Break of Day. How then is it possible, that their Condemnation of Christ, his Arrpignment and Examination, first before Pilates then before Herod, together with Pilate's repeated Examinations of him, and Conferences with the Jews about him, as also the Change of Dress, Scourging, Crowning with Thorns; &c. should all be dispatched by Six? The very Contents of the preceding SrElions feem to demonstrate the cóntrary. On the otber band; n it could not now the Twelve üt Nodit, fince Mark assures us to the contrary, and his Account is confirmed both by Matthew and Luke. (See the Places quoted above, and Note (d) on Mark xv. 25. Sect. 189.) -- I cannot therefore but conclude with Columelus, (Obferv. p. 77.) Beza, and Erasmus, that instead of the Sixthiwe should read the Third Herir that is, Nine in the Morning. For this we have the Authority of the Cambridge Manuscripts and of Pater of Alexandra, who expressly asserts it was span, the Third, in the Original Copy, which he fays continued till his Time ; and tho', as Dr. Mill abundantly shews in his Annotation on this place, all the best Manuscripts and ancient Versions are on the other side, I am obliged here to follow the superior Authority of common Sense; however in Submission to the greatest Number of Copies I have still retained the common Reading in the Versions, and have only given what I apprehend to be the true Reading in the Paraphrase. Some other: unsatisfactory Hypothefes

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