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But fince Petrarch's time things are very much altered at Rome befides, the veneration for antiquity, and the natural prejudice of mankind in favour of things loft or abfent, makes them to be looked upon in a different light from those that are present and ftrike the fenfes.The beauty of a city doth not wholly confift in the multitude of ftatues, and the enormous extent and largenefs of public edifices, fuch as were the pride of ancient Rome: and as Europe at present cannot fhew any ftructure equal in beauty and magnificence to St. Peter's church in the modern city; foLqueffion whether Nero's golden palace, or any of the temples in ancient Rome, could be compared to this noble edifices
Qui miferanda videt veteris vestigia Romæ,
Hic poterit meritò dicere: Roma Fults Puma
Whoever beholds the ruinous remains of ancient Rome, may well fay, Rome is no more; but whoever turns his eyes "towards the fplendid palaces of new Rome, may as Juftly fay, Rome fill flourishes.
When the vaft fums remitted to this city, from all Roman-catholic countries, are confidered, it is no longer a wonder, that, with fuch refources, it has weathered fo many fevere ftorms. It is but a few centuries fince the power of the Pope was fuch, that feveral Monarchs not only paid him a yearly tribute, but, if they offered to act contrary to his Holinefs's pleasure, or did not in every thing fully comply with his commands, tumults, excommunications, and fometimes even the loss of their crowns and dominions, were the confequence, and this without any respect of perfons, or diftinction of nations. St. Antoninus obferves, that the words of David, in the viiith Pfalm, viz. Thou hast put all things under his feet; all sheep and oxen, yea, and the beasts of the field, the fowl of the air, and the fish of the fea, were literally accomplished in the Pope. The sheep, according to that fagacious Commentator, fignify the Chriftians; the axen, the Fews; the beasts of the field, the Pagans; the fowls of the air, • good and evil angels*; and laftly, by the fishes of the fea, are
Concerning the Pope's prerogative over angels, I remember in a manufcript of Pope Clement the VIth's bull for the jubilee of the year 1350, kept in the city library at Utrecht, to have read thefe words: Mandamus Angelis Paradifi, quod animam illius
meant the fouls in Purgatory. The orthodox cannot take offence at this interpretation, as they are compared to that innocent ferviceable creature the fheep; but the Hereotics are little obliged to Urbano Cerri, who, in his State of the Romith church, always fpeaks of them as unclean SA beafts; and with his Elogium on Pope Innocent XI. for es his zealous perfecution of Heretics, he introduces fome fer315 Vent exhortations, encouraging him too go on; profanely 95 applying thefe words, in the Acts of the Apoftles, to the Roman Pontiff, Rife, Peter; kill and eating a 1991 300 aris The great power of the Pope must be attended with a velarge revenue, were it to confift only of the profits arifing from Difpenfations, Annates, Palls, Canonizations, &C. But the wealth of thofe families, whofe good fortune it has been to have one of their relations exalted to the papal dignity, is a convincing proof of this; for, notwithItanding the Pope's profufe way of living, they leave overgrown fortunes, both in land and money, to their heirs. How thofe fortunes are raised is well known to the Ottoboni, Altieri, Chigi, Pamfili, Barberini, Borghefe, Ludovifi, and other Cafe Papaline, or papal families. It has been computed, that Urban VIII. who was one of the Barberini, left to his family above twenty-four millions of Roman Scudi and this partly accrued from the confifcations of the effects of three thoufand unhappy perfons who were put to death by the inquifition.swedo
The family arms of Pope Innocent XII. are three cups, which he ordered to be inverted, implying, that inftead of filling, he intended to pour out and diftribute, adding this motto, Aliis, non fibi, Too To others, not to himfelf," but Pafquin placed the comma after the word non, and thus quite altered the meaning, though with too much truth.
The lands and revenues of the Pope are managed by the Apoftolic Chamber, where the employments are fo lucrative, that the more confiderable are fold for eighty or a hundred thousand dollars t. Collations to ecclefiaftical benefices, difpenfations, &c. are made out in the Datary, fo called from the ufual fignature Datum Rome apud fan&tum syd viftel bng
a Purgatorio penitus abfolutam in Paradifi gloriam introducant. "We require and command the Angels of Paradife that, as we "have difcharged his foul from Purgatory, they will immediately "carry it to the joys of Paradife."
* About 6,000,000l. fterling.
• Petrum, &c. when the Pope is at the Vatican, and apud • fan&tam Mariam majorem, when he is at the Quirinal palace. Every inftrument, after paffing through the Datary, • comes into the Secretary of State's office, of which the Datary is but, as it were, a department. The Rota is a kind of Parliament, or fuperior court of judicature.
The higheft affembly is the Confiftory, where the Cardinals fit and vote; and, on fome particular occafions, there is free admittance into this court, as happened on the 11th. of February laft, at the promotion of Cardinal Salviati. • About nine in the morning the Cardinals met in their long ⚫ robes and mantelets of ermine, but without any black spots; ⚫ on their heads they wore red filk caps, fhaped almoft like • those of the Jefuits. The Cardinals who had been Regu lars, appeared in the habit of their order, made of a thin cloth. The Pope came in a clofe epifcopal veftment of gold tiffue, with a mitre, embroidered with gold, on his head; and on each fide of his feat, which was elevated above the reft, and under a canopy, was placed a large fan, • made of white pea-cock's feathers. The Cardinals fat on.. the fecond bench from the floor, the firft bench being affigned for their Caudatarii, or train-bearers: the Pope being feated, the Cardinals, with their robes fweeping the ground, came up to him, according to their feniority, to make the • ufual falutationt. Afterwards Salviati being called in, he • appeared in the habit of a Cardinal; and having first kiffed the Pope's foot, and then his right hand, his Holiness embraced him. After this ceremony, he went about and kiffed all the Cardinals. In the mean time a motion was read in Latin, concerning a canonization to be deliberated on, little of which being underftood, no body feemed to give any. • heed to it. This round of falutations being over, the
That the antients made their fabellas, or fans, of pea-cocks feathers, may be feen from Montfaucon's Antiq. exp. fuppl. tem.i. tab. Such alfo were the fans made ufe of by the Dea· cons for driving away the flies, that they might not fall into the chalice, (Anfelmus, lib. i. Ep 162. Durandus, lib. iv. c. 35. n. 8, 9, and the author of the Conftitutiones Apoftolicæ ;) and among the Greeks, to this day, fuch a flabellum is put into the hand of the Deacon at his ordination,
It is only at the adoration on his election, and at the coro'nation of a Pope, that the Cardinals kiss his feet.
Every canonization is rated at a hundred thousand Roman fcudi, or 21.2501. fterling; and in the year 1712, there hap'pened no less than four.'
new Cardinal was again lead to the papal chair, where his Holiness, during the recital of fome prayers, put the red hat on his head; but it was immediately taken off again.
When a memorial or petition is delivered to the Pope, < and returned with Lectum written on it, it is an ill omen, indicating, that it has but, at least for indeed been read, the prefent, will not be granted; this manner of foftening 2 denial has fome affinity with the phrafe ufed by Henry IV. • of France, Nous verrons, "We'll fee."
The Pope's military forces, whether by land or fea, make figure. The place where any of his foldiers are to be feen, are the caftle of St. Angelo, Civita Vecchia, Urbino, Ferrara, and fome fmall forts on the frontiers. The Pope's Swifs guards are well paid, and cloathed; yet their chief employment is to keep off the crowd at public folemnities. I muft fay, that foreigners, on all occafions, find • them very civil, efpecially if addreffed in German, by the title of Landfmann, which is more than can always be faid of their countrymen at Verfailles. I remember that an Auftrian Nobleman, of great rank, being preffed by the crowd, ⚫ in return for his condefcending compliment of Landfmann, ⚫ received this anfwer, Ay! to-day every bear-leader calls "us countrymen."
For preventing all diforders and tumults, there is at Rome a corps of three hundred Sbirri, commanded by a Captain, who is called it Barigello; he is diftinguished from the rest by a gold chain and medal; and when he has a mind to be known, he wears the chain about his neck. This poft was formerly very credible, but now is accounted contemptible; and Pope Clement XI. endeavouring to reftore it to its • former efteem, by perfuading fome perfons of family to ac cept of it, was anfwered, that the best way to bring that poft into credit again, would be, to beftow it on the nephew of a Pope, as after fuch a predeceffor, no man would be ashamed of it: But the Pope, and his relations, pursued a higher game, and fo the affair remains as it was. The ⚫ prefent Barigello was formerly a Captain in a marching regiment, and for his good parts, and agreeable addrefs, was ❝ received into the best of company; but falling into low circumftances, he accepted of this employment, which, at once deprived him of all commerce with his former friends ⚫ and companions. 3 zi.
The Cardinals make no extraordinary figure, for perfons who claim an equality with crowned heads. The title of • Cardinal is, indeed, of fome antiquity, but not in the pre⚫ fent
⚫ fent acceptation of it. Formerly the Bishop of Rome was ⚫ chofen by the Clergy and People, and afterwards confirmed by the Emperor; by whom alfo he was fometimes deprived ⚫ for turbulent and feditious practices. It was under Pope Nicholas II. that the Cardinals firft began to acquire fuch bigh reputation. The red hat was conferred on them in the year 1243, by Innocent IV. at the Council of Lyons, as Nicholas de Curbio obferves in his life. To Paul II. they Owe the scarlet robes, and the title of Eminentiffimus they hold from Urban VIII. whereas before they were filed only Illuftriffimi, in common with other Bifhops and Prelates. The red hat is an emblem of their readiness to fhed their blood for the Catholic Faith, though the Cardinals make no great figure in the lift of Martyrs. It is certain, that upon the whole, the fcarlet vestment is very becoming; even the dead Cardinals are painted with this colour, in order to fet off their cadaverous vifages; and it is no longer ago than laft March, that Cardinal Pamfili lay in ftate in St. Agnes's church, whofe rofy florid countenance was entirely owing to carmine or vermillion.
In the promotion of foreign Prelates to the Cardinalship, the Pope allows of the nomination by crowned heads of the Popifh religion. This privilege the King of Sardinia obtained by a refined piece of policy, for he recommended to Benedict XIII. Ferreri, brother to the Marquis d'Ormea, whom the Pope himfelf wished to fee invefted with the purple. I could likewife name a Cardinal who owed his promotion to the Defender of the Proteftant Faith, viz. George I. King of Great Britain, who procured him the King of Poland's nomination; but the circumftances of this intrigue are best known to the prefent Bishop of Namur, formerly ⚫ known by the name of Abbé Strickland. The Conclave is the theatre where the Cardinals principally endeavour to • difplay their abilities, and where many things are tranfacted which favour little of their pretended divine inspiration. It is known, that during the election of a Pope, in the year 1721, the feuds and animofities ran fo high, that they fell to blows, and threw the ftandishes at one another. In this fray Davia, Albani, Pamfili, and Althan, diftinguished themselves; fo that it is not all ftrange, that among the attendants of the Conclave, there are always two or three Surgeons in waiting.'