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orange and lemon-juice; twice as much white-wine as limes juice, and four times as much brandy, with sugar.'
From what reign, or from what authority, this article may be deduced, is out of our power to determine; but the ridiculousness and abfurdity of it must strike every one in the least acquainted with what has been meant by this compofition, for, at least, thirty years paft.--Let us fee how the present have improved upon the antecedent Lexicographers.
• Punch,' fay they, is also a name for a sort of compound drink, much used here, and in many parts abroad *, particularly in Jamaica, and several other parts of the West Indies.
• Its bafis is spring water, which being rendered cooler, • brisker, and more acid with lemon-juice, and sweetened
again to the palate with sugar, makes what they call sherbet; to which a proper quantity of spirituous liquor, as brandy,
rum, or arrack, being added, the liquor commences punch: 6 the proportion of the ingredients are various; fome, instead
of lemon-juice, use lime-juice, which make what they call
punch-royal ; this is found less liable to affect the head, as• well as much more grateful to the stomach. Some also make 6 milk-punch, by adding as much milk to the sherbet, as there 6 is water.
Others use green-tea, instead of water: and what < they call chamber-maid's punch, is made without any water, 6 of lime-juice, sharpened with a little orange and lemon
juice, twice as much white-wine as lime-juice, and fourtimes as much brandy, with sugar.
« Several Authors condemn the use of punch, as prejudicial to o the brain and nervous system.'
Punch has, of late years, grown focustomary a liquor, that there are very few unacquainted with either the composition or the qualities of the several ingredients ; to talk of lime-juice sharpened with orange or lemon-juice, is as inconsistent with common experience, as if a man should propose to make vero, juice fourer by an addition of cyder. The late Editors of the Cyclopaedia are certainly culpable, for retaining such an article; but the Compilers of this work must be deemed inexcuseable, for inserting it in a New Dictionary.
In the composition of the PULVIS FULMINANS, which consists only of three ingredients, one of them is unfortunately omitted: that the experimenter may not be disappointed of his
fun, we That our Readers may the better determine the importance of these gentlemen's transformations, the altered, omitted, and tranf-. posed parts, are distinguished by Italics.
advertise him, to add to the directions here given, two ounces of salt of tartar.
It will hardly be imagined, that we have had leisure to examine critically every article in these volumes; what we have already mentioned, chance threw in our way; and these we apprehend, in a great measure, lufficient to support our accus fation: if further evidence should be thought necessary, we may
refer to the articles, Reproduction, Reptile, Rhubarb, Scale in mufie, Sophism, Stable, Tin* Truffles, Verditer, Vermilion, Understanding, Undulation, and Weight; from all which, and many others, this Society of Gentlemen can derive no other Honour than that of being deemed servile copiers.
However, if the merit of a work of this sort ought to be determined by the quantity it comprehends, these gentlemen are entitled to a considerable share of the public esteem ; for never, to our remembrance, was more matter, or a greater variety of fubjects, comprehended in so narrow a compass. The addition of the duties payable on exportation and importation, to the articles of commerce, though not properly appertaining to a Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, is not unuseful; but their topographical infertions are too flight to satisfy an inquisitive reader.
With refpect to the plates, they are very numerous, and, in general, tolerably executed; but there is reason to believe that no great sums were expended for original drawings, as most, of them appear to be no other than copies from other Dictionaries, and the Magazines.
* In this article even a typographical error is copied from Barfow. Where it is said, the virtues of tin, as a medium, giren internally, &c, which undoubtedly was intended for me ticine.
For DECEMBER, 1756.
ports of Beef, Pork, and Butter from Ireland. 8vo. 6d. Griffiths.
Tho' the Author of these Observations attempts to prove the great hardship, and illegality of this Embargo, and imagines, he has demonstrated, that we cannot greatly distress the French by it ; So 2
yet, like all writers who oppose themselves to the friet reason and undisguised nature of things, he has been reduced to admit what will luficiently counterballance all his objections to it. For, after mentioning what damages may have accrued from thence, to many in Ireland, which, he supposes, may extend even to some here, he reasonably adds, “That noching can excuse a mea• fure, big with so much mischief, but the most apparent necelli
ty, -luch a neceity as cannot be circumscribed by any rules of • law. The most obvious consequence of this concession is, that if the executive part of the Government did suppose this most apparent neceffity previous to, and made it the foundation of, this Embargo; it will follow, that they are justifiable, upon a principle of his own admission: though with this difference, that our Author must be supposed to deny that apparent necessity to exist, when the Government most probably concluded it did exist;--which is the point left to be decided, between the late Ad. miniftration, and the present Writer.
As there is a ftrong presumption, that our Author was aware, the advisers of this Embargo might be justified, in a great degree, from his own concession; to preclude them, as much as possible, from the benefit of their good intentions in this case, he blames them for doing what appeared the best to their own judgments, by advancing, like a true Demagogue, page 23,
That the Ministry cannot be deemed the role Judges of this ne. cessity, in a country where every man enjoys, in some sort, a • share in the legislature:' by which, perhaps he only intends, every Voter, every one who is represented." But here it is evident, that as our Author had differed with an Administration befoie, he differs now with the Constitution itself, and with the Legislature ; who have supposed the executive power (of which a Ministry may be deemed the political Organs, or Members) the fole Judges of such necessity, especially in the recess of Parliaments, and left it to them to act in consequence of their judgment, in such fituations. At the same time, we gladly allow, that the good people of this, and of the subordinate realm too, have a right to think and talk of fuch matters ; of which we wish them the continual poffefiion, whatever minute incon. veniences it may possibly, sometimes, be attended with: but there will always be this essential distinction between these different rights, that the Proclamations of Writers and their Readers, must be confined to their influence in Coffee-housęs, and other places of meer conversation, until some persons of further conquence shall think them important enough for a more telect astention, and notice.
Indeed, when we consider this pamphlet thoroughly, we cannot avoid concluding, that the Author really judged the very Embargo he complains of, either more necessary than he chuies to ad. mit it, or a less grievous hardship than he has reprefented it to be; for where he is instancing the loyalty of the Irish Proiettants,
to the present illuftrious family, which, indeed, Aands in need of no exaggeration, he very reasonably infers, p. 11, 'That from
a view of distressing their enemies, and for the service of their King, and their mother country, it is more than probable, they
would, by acts of their own, have laid themselves under the • hardships'accruing from this Embargo, fo highly complained of.
We do not mean, by this, to contend for the Infallibility of any man, or Ministry; but justice is due to all: and our sensible Author, with all his chagrin and archness, at certain measures, (in which he is far from being fingular) muft furely allow the prohibition complained of, the fanction of being well-meant; as it cannot be supposed such a one as our enemies would rejoice at, or purchase. He is capable, no doubt, 'of faying as much on the other side of this subject, if his views, or attachments, had inclined him : but we are more apt to respect a present good, than to guard against an evil, though it be but a liule more remote: one is the inordinate operation of self-love ; the other, a languid regard for the good of the whole, or of poller.cy.
II, A Letter from a Gentleman at Leyden, to his Friend at Amsterdam, of the Motives that induced the King of Prussia to prevent the Designs of the Court of Vienna. Svo. is. Woodfall.
This is a Translation of a piece written in French, by a Partizan of Prussia. The original is printed with it. The motives b.of his Prussian Majesty, which it is founded upon, together with the Saxon Memorial to the States, occasioned by that Prince's hoftile entrance into Saxony, have been long before the public.-However, as our times have produced no controversy of greater moment, whether we look backward to causes, or downwards to events,
it may not be ungrateful to our Readers, to open as much of it, under this head, as may serve to clear the way for what is to follow. The Motives, or rather the Exposition of them (which, by the way, are no otherwise dated, than from Berlin, 1756,) be. gin with a course of affertions, viz. That, ever since the conclufion of the Peace of Dresden, the Court of Vienna had been industriously searching for means io break it; as aiso, that treaties with that Court are no longer respected by it, than as they are enforced by the sword : That the extravagant duties laid on all the manufactures of Silesia, were not only indications of its unfriendly intentions with regard to Prusia, but what might very well have warranted reprizals by force of arms :
That this aggression was, however, but a trifle, in comparison to the o:her 1. solid complaints which lay again it her, amounting to no less than Ca revival of those ambitious projects which the Emperor Ferdi
nand the fecond, would have carried into execution, if there had not been a Cardinal Richlieu, and a Guftavus Adolphus to oppose them; that is to say, to impose servitude on the Princes of
Germany, establish Despotism, abolish Protestantism, and overthrow the whole Confisution of the Empire ; That the Powers now in her way, were France, as Guarantee of the Treaty of Westphalia ; Prussia; and the Grand Signior : That she chose to begin with Prussia first, under colour of reclaiming a province ceded to that Power by the Peace : That with this view,
the treaty of Petersburg was concluded ; in which, not content with a defensive alliance, she laid a scheme to embroil the Prussian and Russian Courts; as also the Russian and Ottoman; in both which points they so far succeeded, that the Plenipotentiaries of the two former Courts were recalled on both sides, and the Russians were kept in arms on the frontiers of Prufia, from year to year, in hopes that Chance would furnish cause for a rupture; in which case the Court of Vienna might have taken part, only as an auxiliary to Russia: and that nothing could have hindered an actual war, but the feddy and moderate conduct of the King, in avoiding whatever might be construed into a pretext for kindling it. The Exposition goes on, to fhew :
That this was the state of things, when the affairs of America began to disturb the tranquility of Europe; a general war an. swering the purposes of the Court of Vienna, and it being necessary to them, that the great Powers should be taken
up with their own immediate interests: That these purposes being unknown at London, the King of England demanded of the Em. press Queen, the fuccours, which he had a right to expect, both from her good faith, and her gratitude; having lavished his treasures, and his troops, facrificed the interest of his kingdom, and exposed his person, to re-inflate that Princess in the possessions of her fathers : That, to his infinite surprize, he found, notwithstanding, these were to be no otherwise obtained, than by his taking part in the plot against the Prussian dominions : That his Majesty, whose sentiments were too noble, and generous, to adopt a procedure so unjust, not only rejected the propofitions thus made to him, but, to avert the storm which threatened Germany, made the Convention of Neutrality, figned at London:
That, hereupon, the Court of Vienna renewed her intrigues at Petersburgh, with redoubled application ; and formed a plan for dismembering the Prussian poffefsions:
Thar, in order to be so much the more at ease in this undertaking, she took advantage of the situation of France, to draw the French Court into her measures, by the Treaty of Versailles ; and never abated her endeavours till she had insensibly worked up a rupture between France and Pruffią :
That at a juncture so extremely critical as this, when added to all these, and many more, infiduous measures, the Court of Vienna was amassing warlike stores and provisions in Moravia and Bohemia; making armaments; forming camps of 80,000 men ; posting lines of Hungarians and Croats along the frontiers of Silesia; and actually marking out camps on the King's limits :