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cat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened." Olet the young especially beware of the subtle tempter influencing them by even a suggestion to disbelieve or question the truth of God's most holy word. Let them be suspicious of themselves, in departing from obedi. ence to the divine precepts in the Bible.
By the same course it is in our times, by suggestions to disbelieve or disregard the Scriptures, that Satan "the god of this world blinds the minds of them who believe not, lest the light of the glorious gospel of Christ, who is the image of God, should shine unto them." 2 Cor. iv, 4. In this manner it is, by infidel delusion, that the devil, "the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience,' secures ungodly men walking "in the lusts of the flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind, the children of wrath." Eph. ii, 2, 3.
A life of sin or a life of holiness, makes men either the children of God or the children of the devil. "He that committeth sin is of the devil; for the devil sinneth from the beginning. Whosoever is born of God doth not commit sin; for his seed remaineth in him: and he cannot sin, because he is born of God. In this the children of God are manifest, and the children of the devil." John iii, 8-10.
Adam and Eve soon began to be sensible of the sad effect of their transgression. Having lost their innocence, their peace of conscience perished, and shame, guilt, and terror took possession of their guilty minds. They eyes were indeed opened, as the evil spirit in the serpent had declared, but it was not to know any good: it was only to discover their present misery, their impending danger, and their merited eternal ruin. In confusion, they beheld their naked bodies. "They knew that they were naked." The nakedness of their bodies was emblematical of their souls stripped by sin of the robe of innocence, security, and honour.
"They sat them down to weep: not only tears
Rain'd at their eyes, but high winds worse within
Thus we affectingly learn how "sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all inen, for that all have sinned." Rom. v, 12. From the declaration of the apostle in the fifth chapter to the Romans, we learn that all the miseries of mankind have been occasioned by the disobedience of Adam: like as children, in all ordinary cases of this life, are necessarily affected by the evil deeds of their parents. How cautious, therefore, ought we to be in all our proceedings, lest we involve others in calamities by our individual improprieties and sins. Let the young remember, that "Sin has a thousand treacherous arts To practise on the mind;
With flattering looks she tempts our hearts,
She pleads for all the joy she brings,
And gives a fair pretence;
But cheats the soul of heavenly things,
So on a tree divinely fair
Grew the forbidden food;
Happy, however, for us, that the apostle was inspired to teach us, in the same chapter, the glorious method of deliverance from the guilt and misery of sin, by our Lord Jesus Christ, "the second Adam, the Lord from heaven." 1 Cor. xv, 45-47. "For as by one man's disobedience many were made sinners, so by the obedience of one shall many be made righteous." Rom. v, 19.
(To be continued.)
How beautiful the scenes of youth
Awaken to the mind!
Scenes, like the summer ocean smooth, Serener, fairer far, than truth
On earth shall ever find!
Time is a tyrant- months and years
In life there is no second spring
The past is gone,- for ever gone! We cannot check a moment's wing; Pierce thro' futurity; or bring
The heart its vanish'd tone!
When day-light lingers in the west,
A greener foliage decks the grove;
A brighter tint pervades the flower; More azure seems the heaven above; The earth a very bower of love,
And man within that bower! And ever, when the storms of fate
Come darkening o'er the star of life, We backward turn to renovate Our thoughts with freshness, and create An antidote to strife.
Thus dead and silent are the strings,
As legends say, of Memnon's lyre; Till from the orient, Phoebus flings His smile of golden light, and brings Life, harmony, and fire!
D. M. MOIR.
IN Captain Parry's narrative of an attempt to reach the Pole, there is mention made of a peculiar description of red snow which was occasionally met with during the progress of the expedition, and similar appearances have been observed by Captain Ross and others. Mr. Scoresby considers this phenomenon to be occasioned by the presence of a number of animalculæ, as the water in many places was tinged of a reddish brown colour, which was found to contain many active molecules. The length of the animalcules was about of an inch, and their diameter. Their form was paraboloidal, and the motion of some was direct but unsteady, and others moved in a small circle, with one extremity of the animalculæ in the centre. The general speed of the progressive animalcules was of an inch in a second, or an inch in three minutes and a half. The number in a single drop of water was calculated by the aid of the micrometer glass at 12,960, which was probably rather below the truth. Yet numerous as they were they had ample room. Their finny fringes being transparent could not be discovered. When a drop of the water was examined in the sun, it was most brilliantly speckled with the animalcules; some became luminous and iridescent like the fire fly. All were in rapid motion, being disturbed or inconvenienced perhaps by the strong action of the sun's rays profusely reflected from the mirror.
NEGRO SLAVERY. SLAVERY cannot possibly be made to agree with Christianity. Our holy religion is divine: it is founded upon the eternal rule of righteousness-"Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, with all thy mind, and with all thy strength:" this is the first and great commandment. And the second is like to it, worthy of its ever-blessed Author, who enjoins upon each of us"Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself." Can any man, a Briton-professing to be a believer in Christianity, which is admitted as part and parcel of the law of England,"-can any man, with that divine precept in his mind, dare to claim property in manhold him in bondage-to live upon the fruit of his forced labour-or to sell him for his own pecuniary advantage? That man must labour under " strong delusion to believe a lie" (2 Thess. ii, 11), who can justify his holding his fellow man in slavery in defiance of the law of God! What an insult to the Majesty of heaven! What an affront to his holiness! What an outrage upon our sacred Christianity! How can such persons presume to anticipate their meeting the wretched victims of oppression at the righteous tribunal of God? Do they not know, that "the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all unrighteousness and ungodliness of men?" Rom. i, 18. Have they not read in that awful and gracious volume, that "God will render to every man according to his deeds?-indignation and wrath, tribulation and anguish, upon every soul of man that doeth evil; for there is no respect of persons with God." Rom. ii, 6-8, 9, 11).
We will not enter into the question of compensation for the emancipation of the Negro Slaves in our colonies; but we are confident, that, independently of moral and religious considerations, it would be for the interests of the colonists and of the nation, to enter seriously into the appalling question, with a view to the early and the utter extinction of slavery. Nor do we believe that the community would be backward in the least degree to satisfy every reasonable claim for loss, which any party might sustain in that indispensable procedure. Righteousness, Christianity, and policy demand it; nor can it be delayed without fearful aggravation of guilt to individuals, and to Britain.
THE SLAVE TRADE.
From the Sierra Leone Royal Gazette of the 20th of November, 1824, we make the following extracts, to show the horrible nature of the slave trade, which is even now carried on to a fearful extent: but we trust that the recent arrangements between the French and English governments, and the American Colonization Society, will in a great measure check that worse than diabolical traffic.
"We regret never having before inspected the numerous slave ships which have arrived here, in order to ascertain whether they answer the description set forth in their papers. The following particulars relative to three vessels taken by our squadron for being engaged in this horrible commerce, and lately brought into our harbour for adjudication in the British and Portuguese mixed commission, will, we feel assured, astonish even our readers, who have unhappily had too many opportunities of witnessing the misery which this traffic imposes upon its defenceless and unfortunate victims.
"THE DIANA.-This vessel is stated, in the royal passport, to be 120 tons burthen; and permitted, by this passport, in accordance with the Alvara of his most faithful Majesty, under the date of the 24th of November, 1813, to carry 300 slaves, being at the rate of five to every two tons." On being inspected, she is
found to admeasure only 66 tons 52-94 English measurement, and therefore, authorized to take at the rate of five to each ton. The surface of the men's slave room is only 486 feet, and two feet seven inches in height; and that of the women, 103 feet surface, and three feet eleven inches high; yet, on board this vessel, there were actually shipped at Badagry, for passage to the Brazils, 156 human victims besides her crew, 18 in number.
"THE TWO BRAZILIAN FRIENDS.-This vessel is also stated, by a like document, to be 146 tons, and, being similarly licensed, might carry 365 slaves. On inspection, she is found to be only 95 tons 54-94, and consequently in like manner, authorized to carry at the rate of four to each ton. The surface of the platform for the men is 615 feet, and the height two feet six inches; that of the women, 148 feet eight inches surface, and three feet ten inches in height. On board this vessel there were actually shipped at Badagry, for passage to the Brazils, 200 unfortunate Africans, besides her crew, 18 in number.
"THE AVIZO.-This vessel is, by a similar document, asserted to be 231 tons, and by her licence might carry 580 slaves. On examining her, it is ascertained that she is only 165 tons 28-94, and therefore might carry at the rate of more than five to a ton. The surface of the men's room is 361 feet, height of ditto three feet two inches; that of the women is 215 feet surface, and the same height as the men's. Four hundred and sixty-five wretched beings were stowed on board this vessel, at the same port, for passage to the Brazils, besides her crew, 33 in number.
"We have here 328 tons of shipping, licensed to carry 1,245, and actually conveying from the coast 881 slaves, being (in these three vessels) at the rate of 11 to every four tons, besides the men navigating them, and the water and provisions necessary for so great a number of people for the voyage, together with their boats and ship's stores. As the men and women thus embarked were 712 in number, and supposing the children, both boys and girls, to be either always kept on deck, or confined to the long boat (as is the practice), still only a little more than 3 square feet was allowed for each adult African thus shipped-a space in which, we should suppose, no human being could long exist; and, indeed, the number of deaths, and the emaciated state of the survivors, too fully prove this to be the case! From the crowded state of these vessels, we do not hesitate to say, that it would be impossible to cram the number on board which the authorities of the Brazils-by sanctioning these false descriptions of the vessels give the masters permission to take; it is, therefore, to a certain extent useless, although proving to the world that this government, not content with allowing their subjects to carry on the odious traffic, sanction such means of doing so as aggravate the misery of the unfortunate victims thus forced away from their families and country. We shall make no further remarks on this painful subject, satisfied that such cruel deception as is clearly shown to be sanctioned by this power, which is thus adding further horrors to the already detestable slave trade, will not be overlooked by our government, who are, no doubt, in possession of the facts from our gallant commodore and his officers.
"The French slave trade has lately most considerably increased in the rivers Bonny and Old Calabar. new vessels have arrived, and many laden with full cargoes of human victims have left under the white flag, and manned by Frenchmen, although the capital embarked is ostensibly Spanish. In order that our readers may judge of the barbarity and want of feeling evinced by these subjects of an enlightened nation, which pub
licly disavows such horrible and infamous conduct, we desire to make known, that La Louis, commanded by one Oiseau, on completing her cargo of slaves in the Old Calabar, a few weeks since, without the slightest spark of humanity in him, thrust the whole of these unfortunate beings between decks (a height of only three feet), and closed the hatches for the night!When morning made its appearance, fifty of the poor sufferers had paid the debt of nature, owing to the confined, diseased, and putrid atmosphere they were condemned to respire!! The wretch coolly ordered the bodies of these miserable victims of his total want of human feeling to be thrown into the river, and immediately proceeded on shore to complete his execrable cargo by fresh purchases of his fellow-creatures. To detail all the information we have received relative to the enormities committed by these dealers in human flesh, who feel they are protected by the nation they claim and flag they hoist, would horrify any but slavedealers, who seem naturally callous to every feeling which ennobles mankind; suffice it to say, they are heart-rending, and would disgrace the most unenlightened savage."
Our readers will remember with horror that by such means our own West India islands were originally supplied with slaves and part of the same abhorred system is necessarily in operation, to compel the wretched Negroes to perform their daily tasks. Who that possesses a human soul, does not burn with indignation at these enormities? and especially that Christian Britain should be involved in such crimson guilt?
THE GREAT LAND CRAB
OF THE BAHAMA ISLANDS. (Cancer Ruricola.) THESE animals regularly march from the mountains, their usual abode, to the sea-side, in the months of April and May. At that time the whole ground is covered with this band of adventurers; and they direct their march with the utmost precision, never turning to the right or left for any obstacles they can possibly pass over. They are said to be commonly divided into three battalions, of which the first consists of the strongest and boldest males; but the main body of the army is composed of females, which never leave the mountains till the rain is set in, and then descend in regular order, being formed into columns of fifty paces broad, and three miles deep. Three or four days after this, the rear guard follows, a straggling, undisciplined tribe, consisting of males and females, but neither so robust nor so vigorous as the former. The night is the chief time of proceeding, and if it rains by day they do not fail to profit by the occasion; but when the sun shines they halt. When they are terrified, they march back in a confused disorderly manner, holding up and clattering their nippers together, as if to threaten those that disturb them. They most commonly subsist on vegetables; but if any of them by accident are maimed in such a manner as to be incapable of proceeding, the rest fall upon them and devour them upon the spot, and then pursue their journey.
After a march of sometimes two or perhaps three months in this manner, they arrive at their destined spot on the sea coast, on which they rush eagerly to the edge of the water, and let the waves wash over their bodies two or three times. This has been thought necessary by some to ripen the spawn in the ovaria, as the crab, appearing satisfied with this slight bathing, immediately retires and seeks a lodging on the land. Before the last time, the spawn may be seen under the tail in bunches the size of a hen's egg, which they shake off into the water, leaving them to the chance of fortune and accident to bring them to maturity. The eggs
that escape the shoals of fishes gathered round the shore are hatched under the sand; and soon after the little crabs are seen slowly travelling up to the mountains. The old ones, however, have become so feeble and lean that they can hardly crawl along, and are obliged to continue in the flat parts of the country till they recover, making holes in the earth, which they cover at the mouth with leaves and dirt. They there throw off their old shells, and remain almost without motion, for six days together, when they become so fat as to be delicious food. It is said they have then under their stomachs four large white stones, which gradually decrease in proportion as the shell hardens, and when they come to perfection are not to be found. This animal when in the mountains, subsisting only on vegetables, seldom ventures out; and its habitation being in the most inaccessible places, it remains for a great part of the season in perfect security. But when they descend into the flat countries, the natives destroy thousands: disregarding their bodies, they only seek for the small spawn which lies on each side of the stomach, within the shell, of about the thickness of a man's thumb. They are much more valuable on their return, after they have cast their shells, for being covered with a skin resembling soft parchment, almost every part except the stomach may be eaten. They are taken in the holes, by feeling for them with an instrument, and are sought after by night, when on their journey, by flambeaux light. Sometimes also they are caught when they take refuge in the bottoms of holes in rocks by the sea side, by stopping up the mouth of the hole, and then the tide coming enters the hole, and the animal is drowned in its retreat. These crabs are of various colours; but those of a light colour are esteemed most, and when full in flesh are well tasted. In some of the sugar islands they form no inconsiderable part of the food of the poor Negroes.-London Encyclopedia.
MR. THOMAS GOUGE.
CHRISTIANS are the salt of the earth, and they should diffuse the savour of piety; the light of the world, and they should spread the enlivening rays of heavenly knowledge. Mr. Thomas Gouge was eminent for holiness and usefulness. Before the fire of London, he possessed a large estate, but lost so much in that calamity, that when his wife died, and he had provided for his child, he had but 150/. a year left: of this, however, he gave 1007. to the poor, and that with such judgment and discretion, that he produced more good from it than some could have done with three times the sum. For about the last ten years of his life he applied his charity to Wales, where it was much wanted. He urged the rich to lend him their assistance. He relieved persecuted ministers, and instituted three or four hundred schools for the children of the poor; and he also procured an edition of eight thousand of the Welch Bible.
CRIMINAL JUSTICE IN THE REIGNS OF
ELIZABETH, AND GEORGE III.
THE advantage which the liberty of the subject has gained in modern times cannot, perhaps, be better illustrated, than by contrasting the situation of two individuals charged with the crime of treason, at the two extremes of a period of two hundred years. In the boasted age of Elizabeth, the practice was to arrest the suspected person, and to keep him in strict imprisonment till it suited the purposes of the Crown to try him. During this interval (which was quite without limit in practice, however illegal, there being instances of imprisonment for many years without trial), the prisoner was left to ruminate upon his misfortune in solitude, no friend or adviser being admitted to him ; his gaoler, perhaps, or some expert underling of state, was occasionally introduced to examine him,-to extort confessions from him; or, failing in this object, to do what Tacitus describes as the height of imperial tyranny at Rome, suspiria subscribere,-to write down and register the sighs and groans of the captive, for the purpose of making them the subject of criminal charges. Coming to his trial with his powers both of body and mind wasted by confinement, he was literally brought out to "fight without a weapon." He heard the charge against him for the first time when the indictment was read upon his arraignment; he was left to puzzle out his way to the meaning of the charge, involved, as it was, in technical jargon, and was compelled to plead instantly to it. If he denied it, evidence was produced against him, consisting of written, or even verbal accounts of the examinations of persons, not brought into court, not cross-examined by him, nor confronted with him in any way; sometimes convicted traitors waiting for execution; sometimes men charged with the same offence which was imputed to him, and hoping for, and even promised pardon for themselves, if they succeeded in fixing guilt upon him. He was not allowed to call witnesses to prove his innocence of the charge, or to impeach the testimony of the witnesses for the crown; counsel were not to assist him in making his defence; and, during the whole proceeding, the judges and king's counsel were accustomed to display their ingenuity by perplexing the prisoner with ques. tions, and endeavouring to extract his condemnation from his own mouth. If the jury found him guilty, his life and property were in the king's hands; and the old observation which has been applied to princes, may with equal justice be applied to persons convicted of state offences in ancient times, namely, that "the interval between their prisons and their graves was usually but a short one;"" if, on the other hand, he was acquitted, the jury were reprimanded or even punished, and the prisoner was sent back to confinement till the materials for a new charge were compounded, or till it pleased the caprice of government to discharge him. Such was the law and practice in the time of Queen Elizabeth: let us now look at the law and practice in the time of George III.
In modern times, a person imprisoned on a charge of treason is entitled immediately to a copy of the warrant of commitment, which the gaoler is bound to deliver to him under a very heavy penalty; friends and advisers are adınitted to consult with him at all reasonable times. If upon the warrant of his commitment, or otherwise, he has reason to believe, or is advised, that his imprisonment is illegal, or that he is entitled to bail, he may demand to be brought personally before some court of superior jurisdiction; and after being heard publicly and openly, he will be either bailed, remanded, or discharged; he must be brought to trial within a reasonable time, and if not indicted in the
course of the next term or sessions after his commitment, he is entitled to be bailed; and if not indicted and tried at the second term or sessions, he may be discharged. There must be an interval of fifteen days between his arraignment and trial. A copy of the indictment, together with a list of the witnesses to appear against him, and also of the jury by whom he is to be tried, with a full description of each person, in order that he may know how to direct his challenges, must be delivered to him ten days at least before his trial; counsel are assigned to him by the court upon his own nomination, who are permitted to assist him in every part of the trial by examining witnesses and addressing the jury in his behalf; there must be two witnesses to support every article of the treason charged against him; all the evidence is given in open court, and the prisoner or his counsel is allowed to cross-examine the witnesses for the prosecution; no questions are asked of the prisoner during the whole of the proceeding as to the facts of the case; he may call as many witnesses as he pleases, who are examined upon oath, and he has the same means of compelling their attendance as the crown; on a verdict of acquittal, he is instantly discharged, and the jury are never questioned for their conduct.
When the two cases are thus placed in opposition, it is manifest that a very great improvement has taken place in the administration of criminal justice and the liberty of the subject: and upon a nearer examination, the advantages which we possess in modern times will be found to consist, not so much in the declaration of abstract rights and liberties, as in the careful provision of means by which those rights and liberties may be rendered practically available to the individual, whenever the hand of unlawful power may lie heavily upon him.-Library of Entertaining Knowledge.
A WORD TO MECHANICS. As artisans and mechanics, nothing can be more proper for you than scientific reading and studies. It is peculiarly your duty; and every wise man, every intelligent Christian, will sincerely rejoice that such abundant provision has been made for your instruction in every branch of science. But the utility of all mechanical and scientific studies is bounded by time, and limited to earth. Allow a friend to you, the happiness of recommending you the study of the science of religion; the utility of this relates indeed to earth; but this life does limit its advantages and blessings. Eternity, Immortality, and Heaven, it commends to you: with your other reading and studies, give at least a small portion of your attention to their inestimable claims. However scientific, ingenious, wealthy he may be, "what shall it profit a man if he gain the whole world, and lose his soul? or what shall a man give in exchange for his soul?" Above many other books, there is one, in connection with the Holy Scriptures, which a sincere friend wishes you to read-"A Companion to the Bible," published by the Religious Tract Society. Read it as a help to the better understanding of the Bible, and you will be wise in the supreme science, in the science of Heaven and Immortality!
THE books we read ought to be chosen with the utmost care. An ancient Egyptian king had this inscription placed over his library-"The medicines of the soul." Too many libraries contain little else but poisons for the soul.
CLAIMS OF THE CHRISTIAN'S
THE most superficial observer of the "signs" of the
Every enlightened lover of mankind will hail with delight this ardent desire in the public mind for knowledge, as tending in its own nature to improve our social institutions, by rendering each individual better acquainted with the duties devolving upon him, according to the station he occupies in the body politic. But the CHRISTIAN PATRIOT "rejoices with trembling" he knows that to inform the head without amending the heart, will be only rendering mankind more acute to do evil. He looks around, to ascertain not merely the amount but the quality of the intellectual food that is set before his countrymen; and here indeed he finds more reason to tremble than to rejoice. The great literary feature of the present day is the creation of that vast quantity of cheap reading with which the bulk of our population is furnished; and how small a part of this important branch of our literature can the Christian regard as conducing either to the glory of God or the good of his fellow-creatures!
Views such as these were the origin of the "CHRISTIAN'S PENNY MAGAZINE." Its conductors, in surveying the numerous cheap periodicals in existence, saw the aim, or at least the tendency, of some of them to be the production of anarchy and confusion among us, by the abuse of that right, which as free Englishmen we justly claim, and will ever uphold—the right of expressing our opinions fearlessly on public men and measures. Their sole object appears to be to persuade the people that their governors are their enemies; that all things are going wrong in the state; and heaping every kind of slander and abuse upon those whom the good providence of God has set over the nation. Another class issue their weekly poison for a still more awful purpose-no less than to persuade man that he is not an accountable being; and thus at one stroke to cut up civil society by its roots, and deprive their besotted votaries of all hope of happiness beyond the grave! With these two classes shall we say that we have no feelings in common? That were indeed but feebly to express our feelings concerning them: rather let us express our unmingled detestation of their abominable schemes and doctrines, which can have been
inspired by none but the author of all evil: and while we would pray for themselves, that "the thought of their heart may be forgiven them, and that they may be brought to repentance and an acknowledgment of the truth," we would warn our countrymen to shun their writings as they would shun the pestilence, and to walk not in the way of their advising, "for their feet go down to death, and their steps take hold on hell." Others there are, who provide weekly a supply of know. ledge of a really useful kind, tending to make their readers respectable and useful members of society: but their views appear strictly bounded by the state of man upon earth; and therefore their labours must be unsatisfactory to the Christian, who considers the present state but as the threshold of life, and feels it to be of vastly more importance that a man should be instructed in "the things which make for his everlasting peace," than any thing he can be taught respecting his present well-being, how necessary soever that may be in its proper and subordinate place.
The conductors of the "CHRISTIAN'S PENNY MAGAZINE" resolved therefore to attempt the counteraction of bad principles, and to supply the deficiency of good, by establishing a cheap publication, which might be the vehicle of much rational entertainment, and a variety of useful information with respect to the things of the present life; but always in subserviency to the great design of promoting CHRISTIAN principles and the production of CHRISTIAN virtues. They have now been before the Public a sufficient time to challenge an examination, both of their plan and its execution. They claim the attention of those especially to whom the care of our youth is entrusted. Fathers of families may put this Magazine into the hands of their children without fearing to contaminate their minds. Teachers may circulate it amongst those under their care, in the confidence that it will contain nothing but what is conducive to pure religion and sound morality. And we would particularly urge upon our Readers the catholic nature of our plan. We write neither for Churchmen, nor for Dissenters, as such. Our simple aim is to promote true piety upon the principles of the Protestant Reformation. We seek to spread that pure system of truth which was promulgated by Christ and his Apostles, and which has been consecrated by the blood of Ridley, and Latimer, and other glories of our native land. Upon this broad ground we take our stand; and therefore may hope to meet the countenance and support of all, of whatever views in minor matters, "who love our Lord Jesus Christ in sincerity." We give our hearty thanks to our friends for the great and increasing support we have hitherto met with; and conclude this exposition of our claims on their continued patronage, by urging them to renewed efforts for the improvement and wider diffusion of the CHRISTIAN'S PENNY MAGAZINE,
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