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fish) which those desolate regions afford,
* We do not know what officer this is.
* A vers is something more than two-thirds of * *nile, but as the difference is not considerable, *e assume, for the facility of the reduction, three versts to be equal to two miles.
wards the north proved fruitless, and so, after having attained the latitude of 72° they were obliged to turn back. They took up the provisions which they had buried, and proceeded eastward. When they had reached the meridian of Cape Schalagskoj, without finding any trace of land, they took a due west course, in order to traverse this region in every direction. All their provisions being nearly exhausted, they turned back, and arrived again at Nischne-Kolymsk, on the 27th of April, having passed six and forty days on the surface of the frozen Ocean, in the vicinity of the North Pole, without any shelter; during which time the thermometer never rose to above 15° below the freezing point, and frequently fell to 24°. (Though not stated, Reaumur’s thermometer is, we presume, meant.) Another excursion on the ice was made by Baron Wrangel, to examine the sea to the east of Cape Schalagskoj. The Tschukutskoi assured him that there was land to the north-east; they even affirmed that they could see it in clear weather, and estimated its distance from the coast at 80 versts (54 miles.) These accounts were extremely agreeable to an enterprising officer like Wrangel; he might now at least flatter himself with the hope of seeing his long and dangerous exertions crowned by a happy result. He immediately set out, and sent Matjuschkin in another direction, with the same view. But he had hardly got 50 versts (35 miles) from the coast, when a violent storm, which continued several days, broke the fields of ice, and not only rendered it impossible for him to proceed farther towards the north, but even made his return to land very problematical. It was with great difficulty, and after having passed several days on a piece of floating ice, among the masses piled up all round him, in the utmost danger, and exposed to total want of provisions, that he at length succeeded in reaching the land, where Matjuschkin also arrived after incurring similar dangers. By the breaking up of the ice, by which Baron Wrangel besides lost the provisions which he had deposited in several places, the possibility of reaching the land pointed out by the Tschukutskoi was destroyed, not only for that year, but probably for several years to come. Though the Baron did not succeed in advancing farther to the north, he was fully indemnified for this disappointment by the perfectly successful execution of the other part of his instructions, which was equally difficult, and perhaps more important, for he has surveyed the whole coast of the Tschukutskoi, from Cape Schalagskoj almost unto Behring's Strait, namely, to the point seen by Billings, which is 120 miles (97 German miles) to the south-east of Cook's North Cape.
Baron Wrangel had indeed resolved not to return to Kolymsk, till he had actually reached Behring's Strait; but as by the breaking up of the ice he had lost not only all the provisions he had deposited in it, but likewise his whole stock of iron-ware and tobacco, which were the only means of obtaining any thing from the Tschukutskoi, he was compelled to turn back sooner. However, the circumstance that Baron Wrangel did not quite reach Behring's Strait, is not essential in a geographical point of view, as those coasts had already been surveyed by Cook. He and his companions may claim the honour of having solved the main problem, as their researches have established, beyond a doubt, the existence of a passage between Asia and America, which has been so frequently disputed; and of having made an astronomical survey of the north-east coast of Siberia, which has hitherto been so imperfectly known to us. The happy result of this perilous enterprize is to be ascribed to the perseverance of the officers employed, and more especially to their prudent behaviour to the Tschukutskoi, by which they acquired the confidence and esteem of that nation, hitherto inaccessible to all strangers, and where many who have ventured among them have found their graves.
The expedition is terminated, and we look with impatience for the arrival of the travellers, and the remarkable details and results of their extraordinary journey.— [Lit. Gaz.
The corotic. M. Klaproth has recently published at Paris, a letter addressed to M. Champollion, jun., relative to the affinity of the Coptic to the languages of the north of Asia and the north-east of Europe. The learned author of this letter, who is so profoundly versed in the languages of Europe and Asia, endeavours to show the affinity of the languages above-mentioned with the Coptic, which is only the ancient Egyptian language written in the characters of the Greek alphabet. For this purpose, he compares a certain number of words from the Breton, from the Sclavonian, from the Chinese, from the Turkish, from the Tchowack, from the Persian, from the idioms of Caucasus, from the Latin itself; the orthography of which he shows to be very analogous to that of as many Egyptian words of the same signification. From this he would conclude that the Egyptian language could not possibly have been of African origin. But it is evident that a question of this description cannot be determined by the analogy, more or less direct, of a hundred and twenty-five Egyptian words with the same number of other words, drawn from a certain number of the idioms of different
countries. Such researches, however, are not the less serviceable to philology,
NATIve gold, MURIATIC AND sulphu RIC Acid in , A RIVER, M.Humboldt has informed the Academy of Sciences at Paris, that he has received information from Messrs. Boussingault and Rivero, two enterprizing travellers in South America, of a large mass of native gold having been lately found near Antioguia, in the Republic of Colombia, weighing eight arrobos, or above 190 lbs. The same gentlemen have detected sulphuric and muriatic acid in the waters of a little river, which falls from a volcano, called Puracé, near Popayan, and which is named by the inhabitants Vinegar River. They also say schools for instructing miners are about to be established in that country; and already there are lithographic and other establishments, which shew it to be in an improving state.
ANcient account or ARRACAN. The best account of Arracan will perhaps be found in Manrique's (Sebastian) Itinerario de las Missiones del India Oriental.—4to, Roma, 1653. “About 1612, Manrique, with three other friars, of the order of St. Augustin, were sent to supply the missions in the kingdom of Bengal; from Bengal he was instructed to proceed to Arracan, at that time the seat of a great Asiatic monarchy, and where the Catholics had established a mission. He sailed by Chittagong to the port of Dianga, whence circumstances obliged him to proceed by land, over the range of mountains, which separate Arracan from Hindoostan; these mountains are described as very lofty, and as being intersected with torrents swelled by the rains; the road in every part lay over a frightful precipice, overhanging a great and rapid river. At length he reaches Peroem, where he embarks, and after a stormy passage (for the journey seems to have been made in the rainy season), he arrives first at Orvietan, and then at Arracan. “Arracan, he calls the capital of the monarchy of the Mogas, situated in a fine plain of about fifteen leagues in circuit, and surrounded by a range of mountains so lofty and rude, that if the passes were duly fortified, the place would be impregnable. “The city is watered by a great river, which dividing into various branches, enables vessels to sail almost through every street; and falls into the sea by two mouths with great impetuosity.” At this period, it would appear, that Arracan was not only independent, but sufficiently powerful to be contemplating the intention of extending its dominion over the surrounding empires of Siam, Pegue, and Ava.
We are happy to observe, by the prospectus published, that the result of Mr. Bentley's further researches into the Hindoo astronomy is about to be given to the public.
Mr. Bentley was the first person who called in question the generally admitted antiquity of the Hindus, and he supported his opinion with the greatest ingenuity, by reasons derived from an intimate acquaintance with the systems of Hindu astronomy. This opinion has received the sanction of the celebrated La Place, who observes in his “Système du Monde,” that “the Indian Tables shew rather an advanced state of astronomy; but every thing leads to a conclusion that they are not of high antiquity.”—“Several elements, such as the equations of the centre of Jupiter and Mars, are very different in the Indian tables from what they ought to be at the epoch supposed : the general appearance of these tables, and above all the conjunction of the planets assumed, prove that they have been constructed, or at least corrected, in modern times.” But the last paper on this subject with which Mr. Bentley has favoured the public, was published in 1805, since which time, no further account of his interesting researches has been communicated to the Asiatic Society; the work, therefore, that is announced in his prospectus, must, from the known abilities and acquirements of the author, afford the greatest gratification to all who have directed their attention to inquiries respecting the origin and antiquity of nations.
Mr. Bentley has thus stated the conclusion which he thinks irresistibly results from these researches, in the 8th vol. of the Transactions of the Asiatic Society. “In the first place, it must be evident, as the artificial system of Brahma Gupta, now called the Calpa of Brahma, and to which the modern Hindus have artfully transferred their history, is not yet 1300
years old; no book whatever, let its name or title be what it will, in which the monstrous periods of that system, or any allusion to them, is found, can possibly be older than its invention. And, secondly, that none of the modern romances, commonly called the Puranas, at least, in the form they now stand, are older than 684 years; the time when the fourteenth Manwantara of the second system of the Graha Munjari ended; but that some of them are the compilations of still later times.” A very interesting question would hence arise, which is, whether reasoning founded on astronomical or historical data is entitled to the greatest credibility; for the data assumed by Mr.
Bentley, is rather more than one hundred
years after the invasion of India by Mahmud of Ghaznin, from which period, the
actual state of India became in a very
considerable degree know to Muhamma
dan historians; and within two hundred
years after which, the whole of Hindus
tan Proper and Bengal had been reduced
under the Muhammadan authority. Thus,
according to Mr. Bentley's hypothesis,
Hindu literature either must have ac
quired its present form in the short period
of one century, while the Hindu princi
palities were contending for their very
existence; or it must owe its origin en
tirely to the peninsula. But the last
supposition is contradicted by the Hindus
themselves. Under these circumstances,
therefore, it must excite much curiosity
to ascertain the manner in which Mr.
Bentley supports an opinion that seems
so inconsistent with every thing which has
been hitherto discovered respecting the
Hindus: and should even his researches,
when critically examined, not convey to
others the conviction which they have im
pressed on his mind, still the data thus
furnished, particularly when derived from
a language so little known as Sanscrit,
will always be of the highest value.—
An Actount of the present State of the English Settlers in Albany, South Africa. By Mr. Pringle, of Cape Town.
FRENCH FUBLICATIONS. . Le Propagateur Haitien, Journal politique et littéraire, publié par plusieurs Haitiens. 4to. La Chaumière Africaine, ou Histoire d’une famille Française jetée sur la côte occidentale de l'Afrique, a la suite du naujrage de la Méduse; par Mme. Dard née Charlotte Adélaïde Picard, l'une des naufragées de la Méduse. Paris 1824. Architecture Arabe, ou Monumens du o
Kaire, dessinés et mesurés pendant les années 1820, 1821, et 1823; par P. Coste, architecte. 1 re livraison. Paris 1824. Lettre à M. Champollion le jeune, relative à l'affinité du Cophte, avec les langues du Nord de l'Asie et du Nord-est de l’Europe, par M. Klaproth. Paris, 1823. Notice Géographique sur le pays de Nedjd, ou Arabie Centrale, et sur la carte de ce pays, comprenant l'Egypte et les autres contrées occupées en 1823 par les troupes de Mohammed Aly, Vice-roi d'Egypte, pour servir à l'intelligence de l'histoire de l'Egypte sous le Gouvernement de Mohammed Aly; par M. E. Jomard, de l’Institut. Paris, 1823.
CALCUTTA. GOVERNMENT ORDER.
Loans to Native princes. Political Department, Oct. 17, 1823. The following extract from a letter from the Hon. the Court of Directors, under date the 9th April 1823, is ordered to be published for general information. Par. 3. “You will observe that we are advised by these high legal authorities, that the restriction contained in the 30th Section of the Act 13 Geo. III. Cap. 63, which restrains the rate of interest to 12 per cent., extends to contracts made as well in those parts of the EastIndies, which are not under the Government of the East-India Company, as in those which are; the same restriction extends to loans made to native Princes and Governments in the East-Indies, as well as to those made to individuals, whether the contracts for such loans be made or carried into execution within or beyond the territories under the Government of the East-India Company. That the same restriction extends to loans made under a licence from the Governments in India, pursuant to the 37th Geo. III. Cap. 142, Sec. 28, and that it is not lawful for a mercantile or banking partnership, consisting partly of natives of India, and partly of European-born subjects of his Majesty, to make a loan to a native prince, contrary to the Provisions of 37 Geo. III. Cap. 142, Sect. 28, whether the contract for such loan be made or carried into execution, within or beyond the territories under the Government of the East-India Company, that in either case the contract of the house would be void, and that the European-born partners would be liable to be prosecuted for a misdemeanour. Par. 4. “We desire that you will Asiatic Journ.-Nov too
cause this explanation and instruction to be made public, and that you will institute prosecutions against all persons in any way contravening the law as thus explained.” By command of the Right Honourable the Governor General in Council, Geo, Swinton, Sec. to the Govt.
on LIEUT. c. H. HERiot, 4th REGT. L.c. Head-Quarters, Cawmpore, Oct. 24, 1823.
At an European General Court Martial assembled at Neemuch, on Friday, the 5th day of September 1823, of which Lieutenant Colonel Penny, 2d battalion 16th Regiment Native Infantry, is President, Lieutenant Charles William Heriot of the 4th Regiment Light Cavalry was arraigned upon the undermentioned charges, tox. 1st. “For having at Neemuch, shortly after the closing of a Monthly Military Court, assembled on or about the 12th of November 1822, and before which certain bazar debts of his (Lieutenant Heriot's) became the subject of investigation, falsely stated to Captain Engleheart, the President of the said Court, that Lieutenant Colonel Lumley, the Commanding Officer of the Station, had promised to tear the proceedings of the Court the moment they were received, such assertion being a direct violation of truth and highly dis. graceful to the character of an officer and gentleman.
2d. “ For conduct unbecoming thecharacter of an officer and gentleman, in having on or about the 11th of November 1822, beaten and ill-treated and suffered to be ill-treated, a native butcher who had applied for payment of his bill, previous to his (Lieutenant Heriot's) leaving the station, and which demand was subse
Vol. XVII. 4 Q
uently adjudged by the said Monthly T. to be just and reasonable. 3d. “ For having at the same time and place, on the occasion of the said native butcher expressing his intention of counplaining to the general officer commanding the division, of the ill-usage he had received, made use of the following expressions:– You have no business, to mention the General's name here, he has no business with my private affairs,' or words to that effect; such conduct being highly disrespectful and contemptuous to the authority of his superior officer, and subversive of military discipline.” Upon which charges, the Court came to the following decision : Finding.—“The Court having maturely weighed the evidence for the prosecution, and the matter which the prisoner has alleged in his defence, is of opinion that he is guilty of the 1st Charge, and that he is also guilty of the 2d Charge, with the exception of the words, “conduct unbecoming the character of an officer and gentleman.' “With respect to the 3d Charge, the Court is of opinion that the prisoner is guilty of having used the words imputed to him, but acquits him of intentional disrespect.” Sentence.—The Court having found the prisoner guilty of the 1st Charge, and also of so much of the 2d and 3d Charges as is specified in the finding, sentences him, Lieutenant Charles William Heriot, of the 4th Regiment Light Cavalry, to be dismissed from the service.” Not Confirmed. (Signed) Edw. PAGFt, General, Commander-in-Chief in India. Although the Commander-in-Chief concurs in the view of this case taken by the Court, still he is of opinion that there was so decided an irregularity on its part, in admitting as evidence, the proceedings of a Court of Award, which Court of Award had acted illegally in administering an oath though at his own request) to Lieutenant eriot, by which anomalous proceeding, the prisoner is placed in the position of aping as an evidence on oath (and that oath illegally administered) against himself, that His Excellency has determined not to confirm the sentence of the General Court Martial. Lieutenant Heriot is accordingly to be , released from his arrest; but having more than sufficiently proved himself unfit to perform the duties of his station, and it having been represented to Sir Edw. Paget by the Court that the state of his health is deplorable, he having been deprived of the use of both hands and feet by a pa. ralytic affection, the Commander-in-Chief has decided to submit to Government, his recommendation that he may be removed to the Invalid Pension List. [Vide p. cco.]
CIVIL APPOINTMENTS. Judicial Department. Oct. 9. Mr. S. G. Palmer, Assistant to Magistrate and to Collector of Sarun. Nov. 6. Mr. S. Paxton, Register of Zillah Court at Furrackabad. Dec. 4. Mr. T. R. Davidson, Second Register of 24 Pergannahs. Mr. James Armstrong, Second ditto of Zillali Court at Rajeshahy. Mr. Augustus Prinsep, Register of ditto ditto Agrah. 11. Mr.W. Dampier, Assistant to Magitrate and to Collector of DaccaMr. John Lewis, Register of Zillah Court at Tipperah. Mr. J. Thomason, an Assistant in office of Register of Sudder Dewanny Adawiut and Nizamut Adawlut.
Dec. 4. Robert McClintock. E-j-, Sheriff of Town of Calcutta and its dependencies. MILITARY APPOINTMENTS, PROMOTIONS, &c. 'ort William, Nor. 14, 1823. – 15th Regt. N. I. Ens. F. Hewitt to be Lieutfrom 27th Oct. 1823, vice Miacdonald, deceased. Med. Depart. Assist. Surg. J. Fallowfield to be full Surg. from 27th Sept. 1823, to complete establishment. Lieut. J. Paton, 29th N. I., to be 3 Dep. Assist. Quart. Mast.Gen. of 33 class, to complete department of Quart, Mast. General of Army. Messrs J. S. Sullivan and A. W. Stear: admitted Assist. Surgeons. Brev. Capt. D. Mason, 25th N.I., and Brev Capt. A. White, 30th N.I., returned to do duty without prejudice to rank. Assist. Surg. J. S. Sullivan to perform Medical duties of Civil Station of Beertboom, vice Assist. Surg. Carte returned to Military branch of Service. Lieut.Col. J. Paton, Commis. Gen., permitted to retire from duties of office, and appointed to a seat at Military Board. Lieut.Col. Paton to be an Honorary Aide-de-Camp to Governor General. Maj. Cunliffe, Dep. Com. Gen... to be Commis. General, and Capt. Lumsdaine, Assist. Com. Gen., to be Dep.Com. Gen. in succession to Lieut.Col. Paton, retired. Assist. Com.Gen. Capt. Peach will relieve Capt. Lumsdaine from duties of Supervisor to establishment at Hissar. Ordnance Depart. Dep. Com. Lieut. L. Burroughs to be Commissary, and Lieut. E. B. Gowan, of Artillery, to be a Dep. Commissary of Ordnance, in suecession to Capt. J. McDowell proceeded to Europe. Commis. Capt. W. G. Walcott removed from Nagpore to Saugor Magazine. Commis. Lieut. Burroughs posted to Nagpore Magazine.