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8 with divers Nations, the Romans inserted this express Condition, That none of them mould be made Free of the City. And it appears from 0 Plutarch, That the Freedom of the City oi Rome was not obtained in Cicero's time, but by great Favour, and with much Difficulty. p Foreigners were sometimes expelled. And q Augustus left it in charge to Tiberius and the Senate, not to be too eafie in granting the Freedom of the City. At last by a constitution of r Caracalla, Freedom was granted to all within the Roman Empire. The Greeks were backward, particularly the s Athenians in granting the Freedom of their City. 1 Marriages with Strangers were forbidden by the Athenians-, and they had a Tax call'd Milo/xtov, to be paid Yearly by all Foreigners, both Men and Women; and they were so severe in exacting it, that those who u were unable to pay it, were sold or imprisoned. The * Thebans as well as the Athenians, rarely granted to Strangers the Privileges of Citizens, but sometimes expelled all Foreigners. The Corinthians thought it a proper Compliment to make to Alexander the Great, after he had conquered the East, to present him with the Freedom of their City, and that he might be sensible of the high Respect shewn him in it, y they acquainted him, that none but Him- • self and Hercules had ever been made Free of Corinth. Plutarch relates this Complimeut to have been made Alexander by the People of Megara. The 2 Albani made none Free of their City, but the Greeks and Latins: And it seems to have been the general Custom and Practice of Cities, to be very cautious and sparing
■ Toll, pro Balbo. o/Plut. in Cat. Min. & in Cic.
* Sueton. in August, c. 42. Dio. 1. 37.
? Dio. L 56. 1 H. Vales. Not. in Excerpt, ex Dion. Ez. Spanh. Orb. Rom. Exerc. 2. c. 4. s Demosth. adv. Aristocr.
* Adv.Neær. u Adv. Aristogit. Diog. Laert. in Xenocr. cum Obs. Menag. x Dion. Halic. 1. 2. 1 Sen. de Benef. 1.1. c. j 3.
* Dion. Ha!. 1. 3.
in admitting Strangers to incorporate with them. But' the Jewijh Government, on the contrary, was so adapted and contrived for the reception of foreign Nations, that if they would but comply with their Laws, they made little or no distinction between the Natives and Strangers \ and the owning the True God, and professing, to obey and serve him, entitled them not only to all the Rights of Humanity and Kindness, but to a more peculiar Care and Providence of God himself.
If the Jews did not always shew so much Humanity to Strangers as their Law required, this is to be ascribed wholly to their own fault; and it is not the only Law which they were too prone to disobey. a Maimonides and some other Rabbins have affirmed, thatProselytes of the Gates were permitted to live in the Land at no other time, but in the Year of Jubilee-, and that the Proselytes of Righteousness only were to be received, as perpetual Inhabitants. But this is contrary to the Tenour of the Law, and particularly to DeP.t. xiv. 21. where Proselytes, or the Strangers dwelling within the Gates, are supposed to be constant Inhabitants, and distinguish'd both from Proselytes, who had obliged themselves to the Observation of the Ceremonial Law, and from Aliens. Indeed, when the Jews became subject to the Romans, and by that means, had no Power to constrain the Proselytes of the Gates to observe what they hadb undertaken,' it was determined, that they lhould hold no Conversation with them: yet in the corruptest state of the Jewish Church, the Gentiles had a Court to worship-' in at the Temple: And the Jews always taught, That it was their Duty to relieve the Heathen with their Almsc •■, and that it was lawful to converse with
* Maim, de Idolol. c. 10. §. 7. b Vid. Hammond, ad
Matth. xxiii. 15. & Selden. de Jure Nat. & Gent. I. 2. c. $.
c Doctor Lightsootoa Alls 10.28. and Hebr. and Talmud ExertitAt. on Mat. yi. 2.
the Gentiles, if they did not eat with them, nor go into their Houses. And this was the Charge brought against St. Peter, Thou wenteft in to men uncircumcifcd^ and didst eat with them, Act. xi. 3. But what effect this abundant provision of the Law, for the Conversion of other Nations, had, falls under the next Head. It is more proper to consider, in this place* an Objection which comes in our way •, That the Israelites were to make no Marriages nor Covenants with the Seven Nations of the Land of Canaan, nor to shew them any Mercy, but utterly to destroy them, or drive them out, Exod. xxiii. 31. Dent. vii. 2.
To which I Answer, That this was a peculiar and excepted Case, and therefore supposes that they were not thus to deal with any others, except the Nations there exprefly named, but they might enter into Marriages and Covenants with all other Nations: And besides what has been already observed, of the great Mercy which God vouchsafed to these Nations, in sending the Patriarchs to sojourn amongst them; and that wonderful Judgment upon Sodom and Gomorrah^ to bring them to Repentance, and prevent that Destruction which was at last brought upon them: after so long and great Provocations,, these Nations were not unavoidably to be extirpated; but the Israelites were, in the first place, to profer Peace to them.:, and if they refused to accept of Peace, then they were to proceed against them in the utmost extremity ; which appears from Dent. xx. 1 o, &c. For after a general Command to offer Terms of Peace to the Cities which .they should go to fight against; and if they refused it, to smite every male thereof with the edge of the sword., Ver. 13. it is added, ver. 15. Thus Jlialt thou do to all the cities that are very far from thee, which are not of the cities of these nations. But of the cities of theje people, which the Lord thy God doth give thee for an inheritance, thou shalt save alive nothing that breatheth; but thouflialt utterly destroy them, &c. where it is evident, that what
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concerns their making Proposals of Peace, was to be understood in general of all Nations with whom they should at any time have War. But then in their dealings with them upon a Victory, after their refusal of the Peace offered, they were to distinguish between the Canaanites and other Nations: for thed Canaanites were to be utterly destroyed, if they should reject Terms of Peace •, but all, except the Males, were to be spared of other Nations, though they were overcome, after they had refused to make Peace with them: And the Terms of Peace to be proposed, were, That they mould become Tributaries, and Proselytes, so far as to own and worship the True God, and then the reason for their extirpation ceased; which was, That these Idolatrous Nations might not teach the Children of Israel to do after all their abominations, which they had done unto their gods, Deut. xx. 18.
When the Men of Israel tell the Gibeonites, Peradventure ye dwell among us, and how Jhall we make a league with you? Josh. ix. 7. this is to be understood of a League with them upon equal Terms, not of a Peace, whereby they might become Tributaries, Deut.xx. 11. and therefore the Gibeonites immediately answer'd and said to Joflma, We are thy servants, Josh. ix. 8. that is, Do with us as you please, at least grant us our Lives, though not upon any other Terms of a League, yet on Conditions of Servitude: and we find the Peace and the League distinguished, Josh. ix. 15. But this fraudulent way of getting into a League with the Israelites, if it had not been for the Oath, which secured their Lives to them, had forfeited that Right which otherwise they might have had to their Lives, by a Peace fairly obtained; and they lost all other
d Quad ft p.icsm alnuerent in Bellis quidem voluntariis, qua Israelite suscipiebant adversus reliquas Nationes, omnes gladio perimebsintur, exceptis mulieribus fyparvulis: at in Us, qua gerebantur cum septem Nathnibus, etiam hi vecidebuntur. MenaiT. Een. Isr. Conciliac. ia Deut. Qu. 8.
Ad vanAdvantages of the League, but only the securing their Lives. Li the e Jerusalem Gemara it is written, that Jofiua made Three Proposals to the Canaanites, viz. That they might either leave the Country, or be admitted into a League upon Conditions of Peace , or prepare themselves for Battel ; and rhat theGirgafhitu being terrifyM by the mighty Works which God had wrought for the Children of Israel, fled into Africk^ theGibecnites making a League with them, staid in the Land, and the 31 Kings (Jo(h. xii. 24.) who would neither fly, nor accept of Terms of Peace, were (lain in Battel. 'Maimonides fays, that Embassadors had been sent to the G beonites, as well as to the rest of those Nations, and that they had rejected the Proposals of Peace, and upon that account should have been destroy'd ; but hearing afterwards of the wonderful Success of the. Arms of the Israelites, and of that Law by which they were devoted to Destruction , because they had not accepted of a Peace upon the Terms propos'd •, they contrived to save themselves by pretending, that they liv'd at a great Distance, and were not of the Number of those Nations, who had had Tenders of Peace made to them. But that the Canaanites, if they had submitted , and own'd the God of Israel, were not to have been destroy'd, but to have been received to Mercy, is evident from Jofi.xi. 19,20. There Was not a city that made peace with the children os Israel, save the Hivites the inhabitants of Gibeon ; all 0ther they took in battel: For it was of the Lord to harden their hearts, that they jltould come against Israel in battel, that he might destroy them utterly, and that they might have no savour, but that he mi^ht destroy them , at the Lord commanded Moses. Which necessarily supposes, that if God , in his just Judgment upon them , for their heinous Provocations, had not harden'd their