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A. M. 2553.

A. M. 2553.





- Heb

Israel's triumphal song.


The defeat of Sihon. is the well whereof the LORD 23 n And Sihon would not suffer B. C. 1451.

B. C. 1451, An. Exod. Isr. spake unto Moses, Gather the Israel to pass through his border: An. Exod, Isr.

people together, and I will give but Sihon gathered all his people them water.

together, and went out against Israel into the 17 • Then Israel sang this song, - Spring up, wilderness : and he came to Jahaz, and 0.well; sing ye unto it;

fought against Israel. 18 The princes digged the well, the nobles of 24 And P Israel smote him with the edge of the people digged it, by the direction of the the sword, and possessed his land from Arnon lawgiver, with their staves. And from the unto Jabbok, even unto the children of Ammon: wilderness they went to Mattanah :

for the border of the children of Ammon 19 And from Mattanah to Nahaliel : and from was strong. Nahaliel 10 Bamoth :

25 And Israel took all these cities : and 20 And from Bamoth in the valley, that is in Israel dwelt in all the cities of the Amorites, the 5 country of Moab, to the top of h Pisgah, in Heshbon, and in all the villages thereof. - which looketh i toward k Jeshimon.

- 26 For Heshbon was the city of Sihon the 21 And Israel sent messengers unto Sihon king of the Amorites, who had fought against king of the Amorites, saying,

the former king of Moab, and taken all his 22: * Let me pass through thy land: we will land out of his hand, even unto Arnon. ndt turn into the fields, or into the vineyards; 27 Wherefore they that speak in proverbs say, we will not drink of the waters of the well : Come into Heshbon, let the city of Sihon be. but we will go along by the king's high-way, built and prepared : until we be past thy borders.

28 For there is a fire gone out of Heshbon, « Exod. xv. 1 ; Psa. cv. 2; cvi. 12.- _d Heb. ascend. Or, m Chap. xx. 17. - Deut. xxix. 7. Deut. ii. 32; Judg - Isa. xxxiii. 22. Heb. field. Or, the hill

. xi. 20. Deut. ii. 33 ; xxix. 7 ; Josh. xii. 1,2; xxiv. 8; Neh Chap. xxiii. 28. Or, the wilderness.- Deut. ii. 26, 27; ix. 22; Pså. cxxxv. 10, 11 ; cxxxvi. 19; Amos ii. 9. Judy. xi. 19.

daughters. - Jer. xlviii. 45, 46. a common proverb in those days, and Vaheb to be a It appears therefore that the territory now taken from proper name, I therefore propose the following trans-Sihon by the Israelites was taken from a former king lation, which I believe to be the best : From Vaheb unto of Moab, in commemoration of which an epikedion or Suph, and unto the streams of Arnon. If we allow it to war song was made, several verses of which, in their have been a proverbial expression, used to point out ancient poetic forın, are here quoted by Moses. extensive distance, then it was similar to that well Verse 27. They that speak in proverbs] bhun known phrase, From Dan even unto Beersheba. hammoshelim, from ben mashal, to rule, to erertise

Verse 17. Spring up, O well, fc.] This is one of authority; hence a weighty proverbiał saying, because the most ancient war songs in the world, but is not admitted as an axiom for the government of life. The easily understood, which is commonly the case with all moshelim of the ancient Asiatics were the same, in all very ancient compositions, especially the poetic. See probability, as the Poetæ among the Greeks and Lathe remarks Exod. xv. 1, &c.

tins, the Jain shaara among the Arabs, who were Verse 18, The princes digged the well-with their esteemed as Divine persons, and who had their name staves. This is not easily understood. Who can sup- from juhis shaara, he knew, understood ; whose poems. pose that the princes dug this well with their staves ? celebrated past transactions, and especially those which And is their any other idea conveyed by our transla- concerned the military history of their nation. These tion? The word on chapharu, which is translated they digged, should be rendered they searched out, poets were also termed by no lo sahebi deewan, which is a frequent meaning of the root; and onlyous companions or lords of the council of state, because bemishanotham, which we render with their staves,

their weighty sayings and universal knowledge were

Similar to these were the should be translated on their borders or confines, from held in the highest repute. the root syv shaan, to lie along. With these correc

bards among the ancient Druids, and the Sennachies tions the whole song may be read thus :

among the ancient Celtic inhabitants of these nations.

The ode from the 27th to the 30th verse is comSpring up, () well! Answer ye to it. the other part posed of three parts. The first takes in verses 27 and The well, the princes searched it out.

28; the second ver. 29; and the third verse 30. The nobles of the people have digged it.

The first records with bitter irony the late insults of

bahis was the Sihon and his subjects over the conquered Moabites. By a decree, upon their own borders,

The second expresses the compassion of the IsraelThis is the whole of the quotation from what is ites over the desolations of Moab, with a bitter sarcasm called the book of the wars of the Lord. But see Dr. against their god Chemosh, who had abandoned his Kennicott's remarks at the end of this chapter. votaries in their distress, or was not able to rescue them Verse 26. For Heshbon was the city of Sihon, &c.] out of the hands of their enemies,

of the song.

This is the answer.




The Israelites fight with and CHAP. XXI.

defeat Og, king of Bashan. A. M. 2553 a flame from the city of Sihon : (they took the villages thereof, and A. M. 2553. B. C. 1451.

B. C. 1451. An. Exod. Ier. it hath consumed. Ar of Moab, drove out the Amorites that were An. Exod. Isr.

and the lords of the high places there. of Arnon.

33 * And they turned and went up by the 29. Wo to thee, Moab ! thou art undone, Oway of Bashan and Og the king of Bashan people of Chemosh: he hath given his sons went out against them, he, and all his that escaped, and his daughters, into captivity to the battle y at Edrei. unto Sihon king of the Amorites.

34. And the LORD said unto Moses, 2 Fear 30 We have shot at them; Heshbon is pe- him not : for. I have delivered him into thy rished even' "unto Dibon, and we have laid hand, and all his people, and his land ; and them waste even unto Nophah, which reach- a thou shalt do to him as thou didst unto Sihon eth unto. Medeba.

king of the Amorites, which dwelt at Heshbon. 31 Thus Israel dwelt in the land of the 35 So they smote him, and his sons, and Amorites.

all his people, until there was none left him 32 And Moses sent to spy out w Jaazer, and alive : and they possessed his land.

• Deut. ii. 9, 18; Isa. xv. l.- - Judg. xi. 24; 1 Kings xi. 7, w Chap. xxxii. 1; Jer. xlviii. 32. Deut. vi. 1; xxix. 7. 33 ; 2 Kings xxiii. 13; Jer. xlviii. 7, 13. u Jer. xlviii, 18, 22: y Josh. xii. 12. Deut. ji. 2.- a Ver. 24 ; Psa. cxxxv. 10, Isa. xv. 2.

11; cxxxvi. 20. b Deut. iii. 3, 4, &c. The third sets forth the revenge taken by Israel On some difficulties in this chapter Dr. Kennicott apon the whole country of Sihon, from Heshbon to makes the following observations : Dibon, and from Nophah even to Medeba. See Isa. “ This one chapter has several very considerable xv. 1, 2.

difficulties; and some verses, as now translated, are : The whole poem, divided into its proper hemistichs, remarkably unintelligible. A true state of this chapas it stands in Kennicott's Hebrew Bible, is as fol- ter is not, however, to be despaired of; and it has in lows :

it some circumstances which merit more than common VERSE 27. Part F.

attention. It contains the history of the last part of

the travels of the Israelites in their way to the proCome ye to Heshbon, let it be rebuilt ;

mised land ; beginning with them at Mount Hor, the The city of Sihon, let it be established.

thirty-fourth encampment, and concluding with them, VERSE 28.

as in their forty-second and last encampment, near For from Heshbon the fire went out,

Jordan, in the countty which they had acquired by conAnd a flame from the city of Sihon:

quest over Sihon, king of the Amorites. It hath consumed the city of Moab,

" It begins with saying that King Arad, the CaWith the lords of the heights of Arnon.

naanile, who dwelt in the south, (in the land of Canaan,

chap. xxxiii. 40,) attacked Israel and was defeated, VERSE 29. Part II.

and that Israel destroyed their cities ; and that, after Alas for thee, O. Moab!

destroying these Canaanite cities, and consequently Thou hast perished, 0 people of Chemosh! after being in a part of Cannaan, a part of the very He hath given up his fugitive sons

country they were going to, on the west of the Dead And his daughters into captivity,

Sea, they returned towards the Red Sea, and near the To the king of the Amorites, Sihon.

eastern tongue or gulf of the Red Sea, on the south of Verse 30. PART III.

Edom, marched round Edom to the east of the Dead Sea, But on them have WE lifted destruction,

in order to enter Canaan from the east side of Jordan! From Heshbon even to Dibon ;

This surprising representation of so vast and danWe have destroyed even to Nophah,

gerous a march, quite urinecessarily performed, is owing

to two circumstances. The first is, (chapter xxi. 1,) The fire did reach to Medebah. See Kennicolt's Remarks.

the Canaanites heard that Israel was coming by the

way of the spies, meaniog, by the way the spies went Verse 35. So they smöte him, and his sons] There from Kadesh-Barnea into Canaan. But this being is a curious note of Dr. Lightfoot here, of which I impossible, because Israel had now marched from Meshould think it wrong to deprive the reader.

ribah-Kadesh to Mount Hor, beyond Ezion-gaber, and “Sihon and Og. conquered, A.-M. 2553. Of the were turning round Edom, to the south-east; it is life of Moses, 120. From the Exodus, 40. It is now happy that the word rendered spies, in our version, is six and twenty generations from the creation, or from in the Greek a proper name, (Atharim,) which removes Adam to Moses; and accordingly doth Psa. cxxxvi. that difficulty: and the other difficulty (verses 2, 3) is rehearse the durableness of God's mercy six and twenty removed by the Greek version likewise, according to times over, beginning the story with the creation, and which, the vow made, with the facts subsequent, does ending it in the conquest of Sihon and Og. The not signify destroying the Canaanite cities, but devotnumerals of the name 7717' Jehovah amount to the sum ing them to destruction at some future time. See of six and twenty.

Wall's Crit. Notes.

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Critical remarks on several


difficulties in this chapter. “ It proceeds with saying, that after defeating the almost on the banks of Arnon, the last river they were Canaanites at Mount Hor, they journeyed from Mount to pass, in their way to their last station, east of Jordan. Hor by the way of the Red Sea, (in the road from No wonder they should 'sing in poetic rapture, that Ammon, Midian, &c., to the eastern gulf of the Red after the wilderness was (Mattanah) the Gift of God; Sea,) to compass the land of Edom; that on their meaning the great well in Moab, dug by public authomurmuring for want both of bread and of water they rity; and no wonder that, after such a gift, there were were punished by fiery serpents, after which they (Nahaliel) blessed streams, by which they passed, till marched to Obolh, and thence to lje-abarim in the wil- they came to (Bamoth) the high places from which, perderness, east of Moab. The encampments of the Israel- 'haps, these streams descended. And the thanksgiving ites, amounting to forty-two, are recorded all together, ends, where the blessing was no longer wanted, on in historical succession, in chap. xxxiii., where Ije- their coming down into the valley, along the banks of abarim is the 38th Dibon-gad, 39 ; Almon-Dibla- Arnon, which was then the north boundary of Moab. thaim; 40; mountains of Abarim, 41; and the plains The Israelites had spent no less than thirty-eight of Moab, by Jordan, 42. This regular detail in cháp. years in coming from Kadesh-Barnea to their encampxxxiii. has occasioned great perplexity as to chap. xxi., ment north of Zared. Here, at this forlieth station, where, after the stations at Oboth and Ije-abarim, in they were commanded to pass through Moab by w Ar, verses 10 and 11, we have, in verses 19 and 20, the the chief city; but were not to stop till they came to words Mattanah, Nahaliel, and Bamoth; which are the valley on the south of Arnon. At this last station usually considered as the proper names of three places, but one they probably continued no longer than was but widely different from the three proper names after necessary for sending messengers to Sihon, king of Ije-abarim in the catalogue at chap. xxxiii.

the Amorites, at Heshbón, and receiving his answer. “ But there is, in reality, no inconsistency here. In They then crossed the Arnon; and having vanquished the plain and historical catalogue (chap. xxxiii.) the Sihon and Og, took possession of the forty-second and words are strictly the proper names of the three places; (last encampment. but here the words Mattanah, Nahaliel, and Bamoth “ This one chapter has three pieces of poetry, either follow some lines of poetry, and seem to form a conti- fragments or complete ; and poetry, seldom found in a nuation of the song. They evidently express figurative historical narrative, may be here accounted for from and poetical ideas. The verbs journeyed from and the exuberance of joy which must have affected these pitched' in are not found here, though necessary to wearied travellers, when arriving thus happily near prose narration : see verses 10. and 11 here, and chap. their journey's end. What occurs first is in ver. 14; xxxiii. Lastly, verse 20th, in this 21st chapter,) and has often been called the fragment of an old usually supposed to express the last encampment, does Amorile song. But it may have been Amorile or not. Pisgah signifies a hill; and the Israelites could Moabite, or either or neither, for the subject matter not encamp on the top of any single hill, such as this of it, as it is generally understood, if indeed it can be is described. Balak took Balaam to the top of Peor, said to be understood at all. The words 371 nx, which looketh toward Jeshimon, (chap. xxiii. 28,) 117 dobnojn n8170102 usually supposed to contain which Peor undoubtedly was in Moab. He took him this fragment, do not signify; as in our English verto another hill: in Moab, when he took him (chap. sión, What he did in the Red-Sea, and in the brooks xxiii. 14) to the top of Pisgah, in the field of Z0- of Arnon. Without enumerating the many interpretaphim. And if the Pisgah or hill in chap. xxi. 20, tions given by others, I shall offer a new one, which was in the country of Balak, it could not point out the seems to make good sense, and a sense very pertinent. last encampment, which was not in Balak's country, Observe first, that there must have been a place but north of Arnon.

called Suph, near the conflux of the Arnon' and Jordan; " The word Mattanah probably alludes to a place because Moses, whilst in that last station, begins Deudistinguished by some gift or blessing from God. Fa-teronomy with saying, he was on this side (i. e., east) gius says : Nomen loci, ab eventu aquarum quas Domi- of Jordan, over against Suph. By this word is not 'nus ibi dedit, sic appellati ; 77jno nam significat donum here meant the Red Sea; partly, because that has

The name of the place was so called, from the cir- every where else the word for sea before it, and cumstance of the waters which the Lord gave there ; partly, because of the great distance of the Red Sea for Maltanah signifies a gift. Silnos Nahaliel is now from Moses. The single word, therefore, signitorrentes Dei ; 'i. e., great streams, particularly season- fies here some place in itself obscure, because no able or salutary. And nina Bamoth (ver. 28) may where mentioned but in these two passages. And yet point out any high places of signal benefit in the coun- we cannot wonder that-Moses should mention it twice, try of Moab, or it may answer to the last station bui as the word Suph, introduced in speaking of the two one, which was the mountains of Abarim. · If, there- last encampments, recalled to mind the Sea of Suph, fore, these words were meant to express poetically so glorious to Israel, near the beginning of their march some eminent blessing, what blessing was so likely to towards Canaan. be then celebrated as copious streams of water? And “Moses had now led Israel from the Red Sea to after they had wandered nearly forty years through the river Arnon, through many dreadful dangers, partly many a barren desert, and after (compare Deut. viii. from hostile nations, partly from themselves; such 15) having passed through that great and terrible wil dangers as no other people ever experienced, and such derness, wherein were fiery serpents and drought, as no people could have surmounted, without the signal where there was no water, it is no wonder they should favoar of the Almighty. · And here, just before the shout for joy at finding water in plenty, and finding it battles with Sihon an Og, he reminds them of Pha


The Israelites encamp


in the plains of Moab. raoh, &c.; and he asserts, that in the history of the a well, they should look upon it as a blessing from wars it shall be recorded that JEHOVAH, who had tri- Heaven, and speak of it as a new, miracle in their umphantly brought Israel through the Sea of Suph, favour. near Egypt, at first, had now conducted him to Suph, near Arnon; that

17. Then Israel sang this song :
Jehovah went with him to Suph,

Spring up, O WELL! Sing ye thereto!
And he came to the streams of Arnon.

18. THE WELL! 'princes searched it out ;

The nobles of the people have digged it; “ This version removes the difficulties urged by

By their decree, by their act of government. Hobbes, page 266, fol. 1750; by Spinoza, page 108,

So, after the wilderness, was Mattanah ! 4to., 1670; and retailed in a deistical pamphlet called

19. And after Mattanah were Nahaliel! The Doubts of the Infidels, page 4, 8vo., 1781.

And after Nahaliel were Bamoth!. “ The general meaning of the next piece of poetry 20. And after Bamoth was the valley; seems to be this : that at some distance from the city

Where, in the country of Moab, of Ar, by which the Israelites were to pass,” (Deut. ii. Appeareth the top of Pisgah, 18,) they came to A WELL of uncommon size and mag- Which is over against Jeshimon. nificence, which seems to have been sought out, built up, and adorned for the public, by the rulers of Moab. See Dr. KENNICOTT's Remarks upon Select Passages And it is no wonder that, on their arrival at such | in the Old Testament.

B. C. 145L



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CHAPTER XXII. The Israelites pitch in the plains of Moab, 1. Balak, king of Moab, is greatly terrified, 2–4; and sends

to Balaam, a diviner, to come and curse them, 5, 6. The elders of Moab take a reward and carry it to
Balaam, 7. He inquires of the Lord, and is positively ordered not to go with them, 8–12. He commit-
nicates this to the elders of Moab, 13. They return to Balak with this information, 14. He sends some
of his princes to Balaam with promises of great honour, 15–17. · He.consults God, and is 'permitted to
go, on certain conditions, 18–20. Balaam sets off, is opposed by an angel of the Lord, and the Lord
miraculously opens the mouth of his ass to reprove him, 21-30.. Balaam sees the angel, and is reproved
by him, 31–33. He humbles himself, and offers to go back, 34 ; but is ordered to proceed, on the same
conditions as before, 35. The king of Moab goes out to meet hiin, 36. His address to him, 37. Balaam's
firm answer, 38. Balak sacrifices, and takes Balaam to the high places of Baal, that he may see the
whole of the Israelitish camp, 39-41.
A. M. 2553. AND * the children of Israel (round about us, as the ox licketh A.M. 2553.

B. C. 1451.
An. Exod. Isr. set forward, and pitched in up the grass of the field, 'And An. Exod. Isr.

the plains of Moab, on this side Balak - the son of Zippor. was Jordan by Jericho.

king of the Moabites at that time. 2 And 6 Balak the son of Zippor saw all that 5 • He sent messengers therefore unto BaIsrael had done to the Amorites.

laam the son of Beor to f Pethor, which is by 3 And · Moab was sore afraid of the people, the river of the land of the children of his because they were many: and Moab was dis- people, to call him, saying, Behold, there is a tressed because of the children of Israel, people come out from Egypt : behold, they

4 And Moab said unto a the elders of Midian, cover the face of the earth, and they abide Now shall this company lick up all that are over against me :

a Chap. xxxiii. 48. -b Judg. xi. 25. -c Exod. xv. 15. | xxiv. 9; Neh. xii. 1,2; Mic. vi. 5; 2 Pet. ii. 15, Jude 11 ; Rev. Chap. xxxi. 8;* Josh. xiii. 21.-e Deut. xxiij. 4; Josh, xüi: 22 ; ii. 14. See chap. xxi. 7; Deut. xxiii. 4. NOTES ON.CHAP. XXII.

with any place in any country where there is a river; Verse 1, And pitched in the plains of Moab] They for he lived by Pethor, which is by the river of the had taken no part of the country that at present apper- land of the children of his people. But was Pethor tained to the Moabites; they had taken only that part then near the Nile in Egypt? Or in Canaan, near which had formerly belonged to this people, but had Jordan? Or in Mesopotamia, near the Euphrates, been taken from them by Sihon, king of the Amorites. and belonging to the. Ammonites ? This last was in

On this side Jordan) On the east side. By Je- fact the case ; and therefore it is well that twelve richo, that is, over against it.

Hebrew MSS. (with two of De Rossi's) confirm the Verse 5. To Pethor, which is by the river of the Samaritan text here in reading, instead of ydy ammo, land of the children of his people) Dr. Kennicott his people, 1.o Ammon, with the Syriac and Vulgate justly remarks, that “the description now given of versions.” Houbigant properly contends for this readBalaam's residence, instead of being particular, agrees ing; and necessity urges the propriety of adopting it.

- Heb. eye.

B. C. 1451.



Balak desires Balaam


to curse the Israelites. A. M. 2553. 6 Come now, therefore, I pray peradventure I shall prevail, that A. M. 2553. An. Exod. Isr. thee, h curse me this people ; for we may smite them, and that I An. Exod. Is. they are too mighty for me: may drive them out of the land :

Numbers, chap. xxiii. 7. It should therefore stand thus :. by the river of the nomine. fas. est. nominare. ut. omnes. illam. orbem. land of the children of Ammon; and thus it agrees Karthaginem. exercitum. que. quem. ego. me. sentio. with Deut. xxiii. 4.

dicere. fuga. formidine. terrore. que, compleatis. qui. Verse 6. Come now, therefore, I pray thee, curse me que. adversum. legiones. exercitam. que. nostram. this people] Balaam, once a prophet of the true God, arma. tela. que. ferent. Uti. yos. eum. exercitum. eos. appears to have been one of the Moshelim, (see chap. hostes. eos. que. homines. urbes. agros. que. eorum. xxi. 27,) who had added to his poetic gift that of sor- et. qui. in. his. locis. regionibus. que.- agris, urbibus. cery or divination. It was supposed that prophets and ve. habitant. abducatis. Jumine. supero. privetis. exersorcerers had a power to curse persons and places so citum. que. hostium. urbes. agros. que. eorum. quos. as to confound all their designs, frustrate their coun- me. sentio. dicere. uti. vos. eas. urbes.' agros. que. sels, enervate their strength, and fill them with fear, capita. ætates. que. eorum. devotas. consecratas. que. terror, and dismay. See Gen. ix. 25; Psa. eix. 6, habeatis. illis. legibus. quibus. quando. que. sont. 20; Josh. vi. 26; Jer. xvii. 5, 6.

maxime.-hostes. devoti. eos. que. ego. vicarios. pro. Macrobius has a whole chapter De carmine quo me. fide. magistratu. que. meo. pro. popolo. Romano. evocari solebant dii tutelares, et aut urbes, aut exerci- exercitibus. legionibus. que. nostris. do. devoveo. ut. tus devoveri. “Of the incantations which were used me.' meam. que. fidem. imperium. que. legiones. exerto induce the tutelary gods to forsake the cities, &c., citum. que, nostrum. qui. in. his. rebus. gerundis, sunt. over which they presided, and to devote cities and bene. salvos. siritis. esse. Si. hæc. ita. faxitis. ut. ego. whole armies to destruction.” See Saturnal., lib. ii., sciam. sentiam. intelligam. que. tone. · quisquis. cap. ix.. He gives us two of the ancient forms used in hoc. votum. 'faxit. ubi. ubi: faxit. recte. factum. esto. reference to the destruction of Carthage; the first, to ovibus. atris. tribus. Tellus. mater. te. que. Juppiter. call over the protecting deities, was pronounced by ihe obtestor. dictator or general, and none other, when they began “ Dis. Pater. Vejovis. Manès., or by whatsoever the siege. It is as follows, literatim et punctatim : name you wish to be invoked, I pray you to fill this

Si. Deus. si. Dea. est. eui. popolas. civitas. que. city of Carthage with fear and terror; and to put that Karthaginiensis. est. in. tutela. tę. que. maxime. to flight which I mention, and which bears ärms qui. urbis. hujus. popoli. que. tutelam. récepisti. pré-or darts against our legions and armies : and that ye cor, veneror. 'que. veniam. que. a. vobis. peto. ut. Vos. may take away this army, those enemies, those men, popolum. civitatem. que. Karthaginiensem. desetatis. their cities and their country, and all who dwell in loca. templa. sacra. urbem. que. eorum. relinquatis. those places, regions, countries, or cities; and deprive absque. his. abeatis. ei. que. popolo. · civitati, que. them of the light above : and let all their armies, metum.' formidinem. oblivionem. injiciatis. proditi. cities, country, chiefs, and people be held by you conque. Romam. ad. me. meos.sque. venialis. nostra. que. sècrated and devoted, according to those laws by vobis. loca. templa. sacra, urbs. acceptior. probatior. which, and at what time, enemies can be most effecque. sit. mihi.. que. popolo. que. Romano. militibus. tually devoted. I also give and devote them as vicaque. meis. præpositi. sitis. ut. sciamus, intelligamus. rious sacrifices for myself and my magistracy; for the que. Si. ita. feceritis. poveo: vobis. templa. ludos. Roman people, and for all our armies and legions; and que. facturum.

for the whole empire, and that all the armies and le"Whether it be god or goddess, under whose pro- gions which are employed in these countries may be tection the people and city of Carthage are placed'; preserved in safety. If therefore ye will do these and thee, especially, who hast undertaken to defend things, as I know, conceive, and intend, then he who this city and people ; I pray, beseech, and earnestly makes this yow wheresoever and whensoever he shall entreat that you would forsake the people and city of make it, I engage shall sacrifice three black sheep to Carthage, and leave their places, temples, sacred things, thee, O mother Earth, and to thee, 0 Jupiter.” “When and city, and depart from them: and that you would the execrator mentions the earth, hè stoops down and inspire this people and city with fear, terror, and for- places both his hands on it; and when he names Jugetfulness : and that, coming out from them, you piter, he lifts up both, his hands to heaven; and when would pass over to Rome, to me, and to 'mine : and he mentions his vow, he places his hands upon bis that our places, temples, sacred things, and city may breast.”. Among the ancient-records, Macrobius says be more agreeable and more acceptable to you: and he found many cities and people devoted in this way. that you would preside over me, the Romap people, The Romans held that no city could be taken till its and my soldiers ; that we may know and perceive it. tutelary god had forsaken it ; or if it could be taken, If ye will do this, I promise to consecrate to your it would be unlawful, as it would be sacrilegious to honour both temples and games.”

have the gods in captivity. They therefore endeaThe second, to devote the city to destruction, which voured to persuade the gods of their enemies to come it was supposed the tutelary gods had abandoned, is over to their 'party. Virgil intimates that Troy was the following:

destroyed, only because the tutelary gods had forDis. Pater. Vejovis. Manos. sive, vos. quo. alio. I saken it :

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