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that if reduction of temperature be which, if unopposed, would launch the added to pressure, every gas known molecules into space. Clearly, then, in nature can be liquefied, or even we must lower the kinetic energy made solid. But this fact has aided of & gas and increase its cohesion, us in coming to a true conclusion as until the moment arrives when the to the ultimate constitution of gases. cohesive force asserts itself, and the Bernouilli first enunciated the idea liquid condition will be secured. that gases are formed of incon- This explains why certain of the ceivably minute material particles, gases were for so long considered free in space and animated by very permanent. It was from the enorrapid rectilinear movements, and mous degree of pressure, combined that the tension of elastic Auids with the extreme reduction of results from the shock of their temperature, required to give the particles against the sides of the molecules of such gases power to containing vessels. And this, which exercise their cohesive influence on is known as the kinetic theory of each other. And it was by devising gases, has been recently developed means for jointly

securing these by Clausius and Clerk Maxwell. conditions that MM. Cailletet and

If, then, a gas occupying a certain Pictet have liquefied the permanent volume, composed of definite gases; and the latter has even number of particles, be in a closed solidified hydrogen ; and as the vessel like the cylinder of an air- solid particles fell upon the floor pump,

the pressure which it will they gave out that metallic ring exert upon the piston will be deter- which, amongst other things, confirmed mined by the number of shocks of the far-seeing idea of Faraday, that the molecules diffused through the Hydrogen is a metal. The result of neighbouring stratum of gas. If, this is, that from a physical point of therefore, the volume of the gas be view, gases and vapours have the reduced, the number of particles in same constitution : being formed of this layer will be increased, as well molecules which move freely in space. as the sum of the shocks; and in Thus it is in the gaseous state that proportion the pressure will be that matter becomes more accessible augmented. The velocity with to our knowledge ; but full of wonwhich these ultimate molecules move derful fact and suggestion as all this is enormous. Clausius concludes that is, it must be distinguished, by the the molecules of air move with a mind loving accuracy and truth, mean velocity of four hundred and from actual demonstration.

It eighty-five metres & second, and is an hypothesis after all, however those of hydrogen one thousand eight beautifully in harmony with the hundred and forty-four metres in experiments it seeks to explain. It the same time. But they cannot assumes that gases indeed, that all all move at the same rate; for matter, consists of molecules, which they must constantly clash against in turn are bundles of atoms. But each other and rebound. But no one has ever seen molecule or by this freedom of movement atom, and we may fairly predict that they are very nearly emancipated no one ever will.

Yet the probability from cohesion. In liquids, the power that this explanation of the nature of cohesion is palpable, although it is of gases is a correct one is very high ; such as to admit of the gliding of the and the phenomena of the Radiomolecules over each other. The meter only lend additional weight to molecular cohesion is constantly at the inference ; and it is not without strife with the force of expansion wonder that one contemplates the

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enormous

mathematical side of this great pro- their fertilizing granules. The inblem, and finds that the human mind sect, satisfied, seeks to get out ; but has sought to determine, not only the the needle-like hairs, which from velocities of the gaseous molecules, their direction allowed it to enter, and the prodigious number of their absolutely prevent its exit : it is a collisions during a unit of time, but prisoner. But there is plenty of also their distances from each other, nectar, so that it has both barracks their absolute number in a given and rations. Meanwhile, the pollen volume, and their dimensions. ripens : the anthers open, and the

minute dust is thrown upon the inThe industry of the Bee is prover- sect: at the same time, the needle-like bial, but not certainly more than it de- hairs wither; and the insect goes out, serves to be. The visits of insects to laden with pollen, to enter another flowers generally are mutually helpful similar flower in which the surface to flower and insect. They give honey that receives the fertilizing agent is to the insect and cross-fertilization to moist and gummy; and in creeping the flower. The effort of nature to over which the little visitor deposits avoid self- fertilization is, as even some of the pollen, by means of proved by its exceptions, very mani- which the future seed is made ferfest. The pollen is the fertilizing tile. agent. In the majority of cases this is Now, the bee does an borne in the same flower as the seed amount of work in fertilization ; but which needs fertilization in order to in doing this it also does an immense be fruitful. But very special arrange amount of labour in nectar collectments are made between the flower ing. And it is a very notable fact and the visiting insect to ensure that, that the formation of nectar takes as it secures for itself the nectar place most freely in hot weather, and which the flower contains, it shall is prevented by cold and wet : that bring to the surface to be fertilized the is, it is most abundant when the inpollen of another flower, and take sect is likely to visit. It is from the away the pollen of the one it is then nectar that the bees derive their visiting to give fertility to yet another. honey, and it is equally the food of This is, of course, not confined to bees. many insects that do not store it up For example, there is a hedge-flower, as the bee does. The amount of common in the South, known as the sugar contained in the nectar of Birthwort. The flowers are not con- flowers has been recently investispicuous, but are tubular, with the gated ; and from Professor A. S. wider end of the tube at the top. At Wilson's analysis, the most remarkthe lower and smaller end of the able facts are made out. Clover may tube the flower expands into a hol- be selected as an example. He found low sphere. In this there is nectar. that one hundred and twenty-five Small insects creep into the tube in heads of red clover gave sixteen search of the nectar; their way is grains of sugar ; or one hundred and somewhat impeded by the presence twenty-five thousand heads gave two all along the tube of needle-like hairs, and one-fifth pounds of sugar. But all pointing downwards, and only on each head contains about sixty florets : this account admitting of the entrance seven million five hundred thousand of the fly. Having once entered the distinct flower tubes must be sucked hollow sphere, the insect finds plenty in order to get two and one-fifth of nectar. But the pollen-bearing parts pounds of sugar. Roughly speaking,

-the anthers-are not at this time honey contains seventy-five per cent. ripe; they have not opened and emitted of sugar ; therefore, five million six

hundred thousand flowers, in round towards the sun, and so adjusted that numbers ; or say, two-and-a-half mil- it could follow the motion (apparent) lions of visits have to be made to of the sun from East to West. At obtain one pound of honey. A suffi- the focus was a boiler having a very cient evidence of the immense in- large capacity. On one occasion dustry of this minute and wonderful seventy litres of water were boiled animal.

in half an hour ; and a pump was

maintained in action which raised At the Paris Exhibition, M. Mou- eighteen litres of water to a height chot showed in action an arrange- of two metres. This is enough to ment in which the rays of the sun show that the sun's heat may

be were directly utilized both for cook- utilized in the doing of the world's ing food and distilling alcohol. A work, if we can only secure a suffilarge concave mirror was directed ciently clear atmosphere.

THE THANKSGIVING FUND,
Two Centenary celebrations in the fertile in resources, daring in

expesame Century! Who but Wesleyan- dient :'A deed without a name,' is Methodists could have thought of not necessarily a weird perpetration. that? There is a refreshing piquancy The meek retort of the stripling hero about the idea : a kind of Hibernian of Ephes-dammim, 'Is there not a brilliancy of paradox. A ‘Bicen- cause ?' is ample vindication of what tenary,' & 'Tricentenary'and so forth to commonplace courage and average indefinitely, is a solemnity known to devotion seems absurdly adventurous ecclesiastical and secular history ; and braggartly foolhardy. The cause, but to what dictionary, to what en- like the commemoration, is twofold : cyclopædia, shall we turn for an first, God's great mercies in the recent authorized vocable to designate the past; second, the pressing pecuniary second centenary commemoration in exigencies of His Work. First, Is the life-time of men and women who there not a cause for thankfulness? neither are nor expect to be centena- thankfulness enthusiastic, practical, rians ? Semi-centenary will scarcely self-sacrificing ? The Fund in prodo : because the first centenary bas cess of formation is The Thanksgiving been celebrated not fifty years ago ; Fund: in other words, a fund of and anything suggestive of half- thankofferings. It is commemorative measures or half-heartedness would of an epochal development : a conmisrepresent the matter utterly; and summation, which was in reality & not suggest the dualism of the epoch.

crisis.

And if it were not, at the Yet such a paradox is not without a time, recognized as critical—by reason precedent, at least in the vocabulary of the quietness and gracious natof Methodism. Why not two Cen- uralness with which it was passed tenary celebrations within fifty years, through,

--so that its perils are fully as well as two Quarterly Collections realized only in the retrospect : this. within six or seven

is the very ground for gratitude : anniversaries' in the same year : that so great a readjustment should one for the Chapel, the other for the have been accomplished without conSunday-School ? Necessity is the vulsion, paroxysm, spasm. mother of invention, and gratitude is It will be admitted that since the the inspirer of genius. Love and Conferences of 1795, 1796 and 1797, lack, when they come together, are no three successive Conferences have

weeks ? two

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been so important, so historical, as con- Mr. Arthur, and the luminous and stitutive and inaugurating assemblies, convincing speeches of the President as those of 1876, 1877 and 1878, in and Dr. Punshon. Would that our Nottingham, Bristol and Bradford. space would admit of giving all in And what a contrast? In the former full: their excellence throughout case shocks and heavings, detonation baffles selection. The hampering, and disruption, like the prophetic harassing, and if not soon disposed of, earthquake when the mount of the strangling debts of our various de Olives shall cleave in the midst partments, must be effectually dealt thereof,' leaving'a very great valley' with. The bluff battle-speech of the between the rival peaks ; in the latter, unwordy corporal to his company is calmness, consolidation and drawing rhetoric enough for the emergency : and binding together. The new ar- "There's the enemy ; and if you don't rangement did not even take the kill them, they'll kill you. This is form or bear the aspect of conces- the alternative; that the dilemma. sion : it was a cordial convention, Or like the serpents that slew Laocoon the joint workmanship of Ministers and his sons, they will coil about, and laity. If it was not a later first the sinews, and then the throat Plan of Pacification, that was because of Methodist enterprise and self-susthere was no passion to pacify, no tentation, till they first constrict, and agitation to allay. There were not, then crush its energies, and at last choke as in the earlier instance, two councils its vitality. It is matter of devout to be reconciled, two camps to come thankfulness that four most importo terms; and the result was—not a tant Connexional departments—the treaty, but a covenant. Yes, it is Book-Room, the Chapel Fund, the Chilthe manner in which the evolution dren's Fund and the Worn-out Miniswas effected that is matter of such ters' and Ministers' Widows' Fund-in grateful wonder. The thing itself former times heavily burdened with was inevitable sooner or later: a debt, have now no need to stand forth question of chronology; but that it as claimants for a share in the Thanksshould have been brought to pass giving Fund; the first, indeed, renderwith such placidity and moderation ing effective supplies to other branches can only be accounted for by the of the Work of God. But the debte pervading and controlling grace of on our other great Funds have become God. The safe and amicable settle- menacing embarrassments, and must ment of so grave a question is, surely, forthwith be cleared out of the way an ample justification, a worthy occa- by some resolute Connexional effort. sion for the erection of a lofty, solid, And extension must be combined broad-based Stone of Help, which with relief, as experience as much as may be at the same time monumental exigency teaches. The two great and serviceable : at once a trophy, arms of the aggressive service : Misa landmark and a trysting-place. sions and Education, must be both

And is there not a cause' also in lengthened and strengthened, as well the exigencies of the Work of God ? as freed from shackling liabilities. As On this it is superfluous to dwell in to both Home and Foreign Missions, detail ; since we could do little else it behoves Methodism to take up a than quote documents and speeches more commanding position, to present already familiar to our readers, es- a bolder front, and to carry out its pecially the lucid and persuasive evangelistic commission, with Statement and Appeal: an admirable heaven-derived impetus and a holy opening of an extraordinary or sup- audacity greater than ever. Never plemental Budget ; the two letters of did the commissioning Spirit cry with

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more urgent and animating emphasis : and in order to this, a renewed cru

o Zion, that bringest good tidings, sade against every form of error and get thee up into the high mountain ; evil in the land. Ö Jerusalem, that bringest good The Providential calls to enthusitidings,lift up thy voice with strength; astic effort on behalf of Foreign lift it up, be not afraid ; say unto Missions are equally imperative and the cities of Judah, Behold your God.' heart-touching. Far off and near, the

And it must not be forgotten that nations crave the Gospel, from France our evangelistic work is now not less to Equatorial Africa, and on to defensive than aggressive. At every China and Japan, the spiritual necesopen door' which the Head of the sities of the ansaved peoples are most Church has set before us, there are appealing and imploring. many adversaries.'

The President It may serve to mark the wondrous has opportunely and happily reminded growth of Methodism in material us that the High Church movement strength—to comparethe appeals made was, in its rise, contemporaneous with by the Conferences of 1799, 1800 the Centenary of Methodism. The and 1801 ' to the Methodist Societies zeal of our fathers 'provoked very and Congregations, on the present many. It is but a reasonable, and distressed state of our Finances,' for not ungenial, reciprocity, as well as a a' General Collection.' The Confair and honest rivalry, that we, in nexional debt amounted to nearly turn, should emulate the zeal, activity, two thousand pounds; moderately indefatigability and liberality which stated as above nineteen hundred was kindled at our own hearth. The pounds.' The occasion was then, as High Church party is bidding heavily now, 'the rapid increase of the work against us for the poor and for the of God.' The manly simplicity and young, both in town and country; in pathos of the Address is very touchthe

eat centres of industry, and in ing, as the following, not now unthe sparsely peopled rural districts. timely, extracts will show : That Christ is preached,' we'rejoice,

'In order to support the immense layea, and will rejoice.' But that the

bours which so great and extensive a work Church is preached, as an intermedi- requires, it was necessary to engage a large ary between the soul and its Saviour,

additional number of Preachers.... And the we will not silently endure. To the

real necessity of the case was accompanied

with the loud calls of the people in various successors of the first Christian

parts for additional labourers.....Our enopponents of a direct salvation, the deavours to accommodate the Societies preachers of salvation by ceremony and

with the Preachers they have desired, have corporate and corporeal officiations,

been in many instances the cause of long

removes and great expenses...None upon we will not give place by subjection,' earth, we sincerely believe, give so largely or by negligence, 'no, not for an as you, in proportion to your abilities, for hour; that the truth of the Gospel the cause of religion : and while the reviral

continues (and we trust it will continne till may continue with’ the people of these lands. But there is another foe more

the commencementof the great millennium),

we must expect occasional difficulties in dangerous than even Ritualism, be- our temporal concerns. It is, we doubt cause more accordant with the ten- not, for our good.... It affords our brethren dency of the times : baptized and

one of the best means of evidencing their

love to God, by delivering not only His ordained scepticism ; an 'abomination

Ministers, but His work itself, in some that maketh desolate,' standing where sense, from those difficulties which He, in it ought not.' Hence the necessity of infinite wisdom, suffers it to be brought

into, in the course of human events. preoccupying the juvenile and the

Need wo enlarge ? Poor as we are, popular mind with a living faith in

and poor as it is best for us to be, you Christ and in His glorious Gospel; feel for our honour, and for that of the

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