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No. 44, Cannon Street, London, have an African ele- And yet a very great part of the world, though they phant's tusk usually standing at their door, measuring do not run into such outrageous frolics as these are, Eight Feet in length, and weighing ONE HUNDRED yet their lives are little better than a train of incoheAND FORTY POUNDS, it being thicker than that of rent and independent fancies and humours. They Mr. Verinder's.

live without thought, or any wise design; any extemThe tusks of the Indian elephant rarely exceed pore project has them, which starts up in their minds, seventy pounds each in weight, though tusks have been or strikes their fancies. They scarce know what they brought to the India house weighing one hundred and have to do the next day, nor how they spent the last. fifty pounds each. The largest tusk of an elephant on But is this a life for men who are to be judged ? record was one sold at Amsterdam, and which, accord. Others there are who give themselves up to the go. ing to Klokner, weighed Three HUNDRED AND FIFTY vernment of their passions, which are so vehement and POUNDS.

impetuous, and always in so much haste, that they will Our young readers especially will feel interested in neither hear reason, nor allow any time for it and endeavouring to form an adequate idea of these won. then no wonder if they do such things as they can give derful creatures, which are able to carry constantly, no good account of, when their passion is over. and with easy convenience, pairs of such massy and Others are more fixed and resolved in their way. weighty tusks.

They have chosen such a course of life as they like best, and they are resolved to pursue it, and that no

thing shall put them out of it; and therefore they too THOUGHTS ON FUTURE JUDGMENT.

resolve against thinking, lest that should disturb them, If we must be judged, it becomes us to act with and give check to their enjoyments. They will neither great consideration and advice; rashness, precipitancy, listen to their own consciences, nor hearken to the iminadvertency, to do we know not what, in a heat and portunities of their friends, nor be persuaded to coniinpetus, without considering whether it be good or sider what the probable end of all their actions will be, evil, right or wrong, does not become those who must both in this world, and in the next. be judged. To be judged is to be called to an ac- These are all unthinking, unconsidering sinners. count, to give a reason for what we do; and therefore But you will all confess, that these men do not live as we cught to consider what reason to give before we do if they were to be judged. And therefore, if we beit. We must be judged by a rule, and therefore we lieve that we shall be judged, none of us ought to live ought to live by rule too; which no man can do, who thus : for all this will not prevent our being judged ; does not consider well what he does, before he does it. but will make us very unable to give a good account It will be an ill plea at the day of judgment to say, that

of ourselves when we are. Sherlock. we did not consider what we did ; that we lived without care, without thought, without observation ; for this is not an allowable plea for a reasonable creature, much less for one who knows he must be judged.

For why

THE LOVE OF CHRIST. did you live without thought, without consideration? Oh! never, never canst thou know Had you not the power of thinking, of reasoning, of

What then for thee the Saviour bore, considering? And did not God give these powers and The pangs of that mysterious wo faculties to you, to direct and govern your lives? Did That wrung his frame at every pore, He not make you reasonable creatures, that you might The weight that press’d upon his brow, consider and live by reason ? and is it an excuse then

The fever of his bosom's core ! for a reasonable creature, that he lived and acted with- Yes! man for man perchance may brave out reason, and a wise consideration things ? This The horrors of the yawning grave; is the great degeneracy of human nature, the abuse and Aud friend for friend, or child for sire, corruption of those natural powers which God hath Undaunted and unmov'd expire, given us, the source of all the evils that are in the From love - or piety-or pride ;world, and therefore can be no excuse ; much Jess, But who can die as Jesus died? when we know that God_will judge us, and require a reason of our actions. For, not to consider our own A sweet but solitary beam, ways, when we know God considers them, and will re. An emanatiou from above, quire an account of them, is a contempt of his judg- Glimmers o'er life's uncertain dream, ment: for, did we reverence our Judge, we must con

We hail that beam, and call it love! sider. And yet how many mad, extravagant, wicked But fainter than the pale star's ray actions are there daily committed, which those who do Before the noontide blaze of day, them, never think why they do them ; nor what reason- And lighter than the viewless sand able account they can give of them either to God or man! Beneath the wave that sweeps the strand,

Some men are very fond of what they call a frolic; Is all of love that man can know,that is, to lay aside all thought and consideration, and

All that in angel breasts can glow,-. to give themselves up to the governinent of every sud- Compar'd, O Lord of Hosts !' with thine, den and unaccountable fancy : and the more wild and Eternal — fathounless - divine ! extravagant it is, the more entertaining, without any

Rev. T. DALE. regard to virtue or vice, to decency and honour. They drink themselves drunk in a frolic ; blaspheme God,

THE SOUL. and His Son Jesus Christ, and His most holy religion; abuse wives and virgins, and affront all they meet in a

Oh how mysterious is the soul, frolic. But it is ridiculous to imagine, if we must be

The conscious witness of a God; judged, that such frolics as these shall be allowed in the

Who sees the wide creation roll account, or pass for ciphers and empty scenes of life,

Obedient to his nod. to signify no more than they were intended for ; that

Those who deny his power, as well because we choose at such a time to act without reason

Their own existence inay deny; and consideration, therefore God should demand no

And-'tis an awful thing to tell reason nor account of such actions.

The soul can never die !


but upon my interest in the Persons of the Trinity,

the free grace of God, and the blessings of grace DR. PRIESTLEY was the most distinguished minister streaming to me through the blood and righteousness among the Socinians of his day. He was born 1733, of Christ, as the ground of my hope. These are no and died in 1804. From Mr. Joseph Priestley's Letter new things to me, but what I have been long acquainted to Mr. Lindsey, quoted in Dr. Pye Smith's Letters to with-what I can live and die hy. I apprehend I shall Mr. Belsham, we learn what miserable sources he not be long here, but this you may tell to any of my looked to for dying consolations. We quote the follow- friends." ing :-" He desired me to reach him a pamphlet which This has been the dying experience of the true disciwas at his bed's head; ‘Simpson on the Duration of ples of Christ in every age of the church; and the dying Future Punishment.' 'It will be a source of satisfaction testimony of his servants affords much edification to to you to read that pamphlet,' said he ‘giving it to me. those who are inquiring after the doctrines of Divine * li contains my sentiments, and a belief in them will truth. be a support to you in the most trying circumstances, as it has been to me. We shall all meet finally : we only require different degrees of discipline, suited to

HUMAN SACRIFICES. our different tempers, to prepare us for final happiness." Among the multiplied enormities of which the ancient

Alas! who can but pity that great philosopher? Canaanitish nations were guilty, that of immolating Why should he reject the consolations of Christ? Why human victims at the shrine of superstition appears to should he cherish his infidel opinions, and not rather have been at once the blackest and most revolting. have faith in the Lord Jesus Christ, and say with Paul, From various passages in the sacred writings, we are “I know whom I have believed, and am persuaded he led to infer, that it was the practice of this crime which is able to keep that which I have committed to him filled the cup of their transgressions to overflowing, and against that day?

drew down upon them that vengeance which was sa.

tiated only by their extermination. Horrid as was the Dr. Price was the most eminent among the Arians custom, it appears to have been observed by the most of his time: he was born in 1723, and died in 1791. polished nations of antiquity; the poets and historians, From the Rev. Mr. Newton's Posthumous Works, we both of Greece and Rome, not unfrequently allude to learn the deplorable state of uncertainty in which that it as a high act of adoration, and particularly efficacelebrated speculator's mind continued to his dying cious in appeasing the wrath of an offended idol. Even day. He said, “ Now, in the evening of a life devoted the venerable rites of the Druids were stained with the to inquiries, and spent in endeavours (weak and feeble same pollutions ; and when we reflect that our own indeed) to serve the best interests, present and future, exalted island was at one time numbered among “the of mankind; I am waiting the great teacher, convinced dark places of the earth and the habitations of blood," that the order of Nature is perfect, that infinite wisdom our deliverance from such gross blindness and delusion and goodness governs all things, and that Christianity by the dissemination of Christiau knowledge, is one of comes from God: but at the same time puzzled by the brightest trophies of the triumph of the Cross, and many difficulties, anxious for more light, and resting must cause every heart to throb with genuine emotions with full and constant assurance only on this one of gratitude to that God, whose beneficence is unparaltruth ;-That the practice of virtue iš the duty and lelled, and whose highest attribute is love. dignity of man, and in all events his wisest and safest course.” What believer in the gospel of Christ can but pity

REGARD TO DIVINE TRUTH. such a wan in so gloomy a state of uncertainty? How

As in the animal economy the action of the heart and unlike to scriptural Christianity, which teaches and

of the lungs, though very different, are equally neces

sary for the maintenance of life, and we cannot say and semi-heathen sentiments! He can say,

“ For to

that either of them is more essentially requisite than me to live is Christ, and to die is gain. For I am in a

the other; so in the truths of divine revelation, strait betwixt two, having a desire to depart, and to the knowledge and belief of which are essentially rebe with Christ, which is far better.”

quisite with respect to the salvation of a sinner. And

though they are distinct in themselves, we cannot deDR. GILL was the most learned orthodox commen. termine which of them is of the most importance to tator on Scriptures of his age: he was

We must what is in the

of to his Commentary, we learn, that a short time before be died, he said, I have nothing to make me uneasy ;

our transgressions, or we cannot rightly understand a

single chapter of the Bible. and then repeated the following lines from Dr. Watts,

W. W. C. in honour of the Redeemer,

“ He rais'd me from the deeps of sin,
The gates of gaping hell;

And fix'd my standing more secure
Than 'twas before I fell."

When Dr. Beattie was introduced to the king, at Kew,

both their majesties and the doctor spoke highly of In a letter to his relative, the Rev. John Gill of St. Alban's, he expressed himself in these terms:—“I

Lord Dartmouth; and the king added, “ They say that

Lord Dartmouth is an enthusiast; but surely he says depend wholly and alone upon the free, sovereign, eternal, unchangeable love of God, the firm and everlasting

nothing on the subject of religion, but what every

Christian may and ought to say."- Forbes's Life of covenant of grace, and my interest in the Persons of

Beattie. the Trinity, for my whole salvation ; and not upon any righteousness of my own, nor on any

thing in me, or done by me under the infuences of the Holy Spirit;" and then,

EPITAPH ON A CHILD. as confirming what he had delivered, he added, " not upon any services of mine, which I have been assisted What thou art now, our hopes would gladly tell ; to perform for the good of the church, do I depend, What thou wert once, our tears declare too well.


about a mile and a half with tolerable ease, when the

route gradually became worse. It began to assuine a In early times, the Press as yet unknown,

wave-like appearance, and the cracks or fissures were The artist carv'd his hieroglyphic stone,

so large that our horses were in momentary danger of The lasting pile ambition sought to raise,

falling into them, so that it was inpossible to take To gratify his ardent thirst of praise :

them further. - We accordingly rested about half While round him mouldering ruins mock'd his care,

an hour, which gave me time to exainine the place And show'd th' oblivious fate his toil must share;

where we had halted, which certainly exhibits one of Whilst genius pensive sat in thought profound,

the most extraordinary and wonderful effects of the Mourning the spoils of ages scatter'd round !

convulsions of nature that even came under my obserBenighted reason slumber'd in the breast,

vation. The basaltic formation of the Giant's CauseLulld by the gloom of ignorance to rest :

way, of Staffa, or the more gigantic ones of the Shant The trackless age with rapid pinion flew,

Isles, falls very short of the wondrous appearance of And dropp'd the veil that clos'd the distant view.

this valley. On our first entrance upon it, the lava Muse! to my pensive hours for ever dear,

appeared to have cooled in almost a quiescent state, its With brighter scenes my languid spirits cheer;

surface being only marked by slight concentric circles : From man unletter'd as I willing turn,

but in a short time these increased in size, and rose Let me the guardian hand of Heaven discern.

in sharp ridges of several feet high, and occasionally Blest be his shade in endless realms of light,

swelled in the bubble-like forın seen in the crater : to Who bade the alphabet dispel our night;

these succeeded large waves, rising to a considerable Those wond'rous symbols, that can still retain

height, and their tops rent into the most fantastic The phantom forms that pass along the brain;

shapes. In other places, the lava exhibited the appear. O'er unsubstantial thought hold strong control,

ance of huge boiling cauldrons, which had burst and And fix the essence of th' inimortal soul.

emptied themselves in violent torrents. On the left, Man unreluctant meets the general doom,

near the edges, cataracts, several hundred yards wide, His mind embalm'd defies th' o'erwhelming tomb; had swept down immense masses of broken rocks, some Lives in fresh vigour through succeeding years,

of them many hundred tons weight; - these, floatiog Nor yields its powers whilst nature guides the spheres. like corks on the meltcd lava, had inet with some imWhere swelling Nile his fertilizing stores

pediments in their way, and remain, piled upon each O’er thirsty Egypt unexhausted pours;

Other by the impetuous burning stream, in the most Where plenty, rising from the reeking soil,

extraordinary manner; leaving to distant ages these Bends with the load that asks no human toil;

striking proofs of the horrid combustion of internal And every charm luxuriant nature brings,

subterraneous fires, by which the higher mountain disSpontaneous from her teeming bosom springs ;

tricts have been formed.”
Industrious science form’d the great design,
To range in words the alphabetic sign;
On language, permanence and life bestow'd,

Of written thought the first rude effort : how'd;

LINNÆus in describing this animal, of the existence And as the rays of morning's golden eye

of which many have expressed their incredulity, tells Streak with resplendent light the eastern sky,

Os it is to be met with in the vast marshy plains of So with mild beam the sun of learning rose,

Bothnia and Finland, where it crawls up shrubs and That round us now noontide lustre throw3 !

sedge grass, and being carried forward by the wind, Tinmortal spirits ! ye who first could feel

penetrates suddenly into such exposed parts of men For learning's pure delights a holy zeal ;

and horses as are not perpendicularly situated. It Who first the ever-wasting lamp renew'd,

quickly buries itself under the skin, leaving a black Wrapt in the joys of thankful solitude;

point where it entered, which is goon succeeded by exAnd rais'd the temple on eternal base

cruciating pain, inflammation and gangrene of the part, To knowledge sacred, and the human race,

swooning and death. This all happens in a day or two, Through drear oblivion's boundless vortex lost, frequently within a few hours, unless the animal be Sages! we mourn your great productions lost :

extracted, which is done by carefully dissecting the Yet be your worth in every distaut clime

muscles where it has entered. The statement of this Acknowledg'd thro' the thickening mists of time! eminent naturalist has been fully confirmed by modern M'CREERY'S PRES. travellers in Norway and Sweden.

W. W. C.

VOLCANIC REMAINS IN MEXICO. We gave is a former number (p. 32) an account of a large tract of country covered with lava, we now subjoin the following from the same work.

If I was surprised in passing the crater of the vol. cano, in my way to Perote, I was astonished at here beholding the contents probably of that very crater before me, filling an extensive valley, many leagues in length, with an immense sea of lava, which, from the slope of the mountain that bounded it, I should judge in several places to be many hundred fathoms thick, converting what had been a deep valley into a vast plain of solid rock, on whose surface the arks of its progress and violent agitation, when in a state of fusion, are as fresh as if the event had taken place but yesterday, except that in some places a few stunted and scanty specimens of vegetation appeared in some of the fissures of the iron-like lava." We rode on for

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their present undertaking, and accomplish, by their

divine assistance, what huinan piety had thus beg'ın. ORIGIN OF WAKES.-Wakes, or watches, sv called from Having concluded this prayer, he put his hands to the the Gothic word waken, or the Saxon wacian, originated fillets, to which the ropes, with a great stone fastened in the idolatrous superstition of paganism. Wakes were to them, had been tied for this occasion ; when im. rightly festivals kept in honour of the tutelar divinities mediately the whole company of priests, senators, and on the anniversaries of the dedication of their temples. knights, with the greatest part of the common people,

Dr. Kennett, in his Roman Antiquities,observes, laying hold together on the rope, with all the expres“The ceremony of the consecration of temples (a piece sions of joy, drew the stone into the trench designed of superstition very well worth our notice), we cannot for the foundation, throwing in wedges of gold, silver, better apprehend than by the following account which and other metals, which had never endured the fire." Tacitus gives us of that solemnity in reference to These dedications were solemnized and commemo. the capitol, when repaired by Vespasian; though per- rated with all the extravagance of superstition, and haps the chief rites were celebrated upon the entire with all the licentious impurities inseparable from pagan raising of the structure, this being probably intended idolatry, and continued, on some occasions, for several only for the hallowing the floor. Upon the 21st of days and nights. June, being a very clear day, the whole plot of ground designed for the temple was bound about with fillets Popish WAKES —The learned Mr. Whitaker, in his and garlands. Such of the soldiers as had lucky names, History of Manchester, has given a particular account entered first with boughs in their hands, taken from of the origin of Euglish wakes and fairs. He observes, those trees which the gods more especially delighted that “every church at its consecration received the in. Next came the vestal virgins, with boys and girls name of some particular saint: this custom was pracwhose fathers and mothers were living, and sprinkled tised among the Roman Britons, and continued among the place with brook-water, river-water, and spring- the Saxons; and in the council of Cealchythe, in 816, water. Then Heloidius Priscus, the Prætor (Plautus the name of the denominating saint was expressly reÆlian, one of the chief priests, going before him), after quired to be inscribed on the altars, and also on the "he had performed the solemo sacrifice of a swine, a walls of the church, or a tablet within it. The feast of sheep, and a bullock, for the purgation of the floor, and this saint became of course the festival of the church. laid the entrails upon a green turf, humbly besought Thus Christian festirals were substituted in the roon Jupiter, Juno, Minerva, and the other deities, protectors of the idolatrous anniversaries of heathenism : accordof the empire, that they would be pleased to prosper ingly, at the first introduction of Christianity among the Vol. I.


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Jutes of Kent, Pope Gregory the Great advised, that pious Archbishop Abbot peremptorily forbad its being what had previously been done among the Britons, read at Croydon, where he was residing. This refusal should be continued that Christian festivals should cost the upright prelate his favour with his sovereigo, be instituted in the room of the idolatrous, and the suf- as the court had their balls, masquerades, and plays, fering day of the martyr whose relics were reposited in even on the Lord's day evenings ! the church, or the day on which the building was ac- Archbishop Laud, in the reign of Charles I, was a tually dedicated, to be the establiehed feast of the pa- perfect contrast to holy Abbot, and he revived the wakes rish. Both were appointed and observed ; and they and Sunduy revels. Pierce, Bishop of Bath and Wells, were clearly distinguished at first among the Saxons, as in reply to the archbishop, who was offended with the appears from the laws of the Confessor. Thus insti. judges for prohibiting them, says, “The late supprestuted at first, the day of the tutelar saint was observed, siou of the revels was very unacceptable, and that the most probably by the Britons, and certainly by the restitutiou of them would be very grateful to the gentry, Saxons, with great devotion. When Pope Gregory, re- clergy, and common people : for proof of which he had coinmended the festival of the patron saint, he advised procured the hands of seventy-two of his clergy, in the people to erect booths of branches about the whose parishes these feasts are kept; and he believes churches on the day of the festival, and to feast and be that if he had sent for a hundred more he should have merry in them with innocence. Accordingly, in every had the same answer from them all; but these seventy. parish, on the returning anniversary of the saint, little two,says his lorilship, are like the seventy-two inpavilions were constructed of boughs, and the people terpreters that agreed so soon in the translation of the indulged in them in hospitality and mirth. The feast- Old Testament in the Greek. There are in Somerseting of the saint's day, however, was soon abused; and shire,” says he, “not only feasts of dedication (wakes), even in the body of the church, when the people were but also church-ales, clerk-ales, and bid-ales.assembled for devotion, they began to mind diversions, “ The Feasts of Dedication are in memory of the and to introduce drinking. These celebrities were the dedication of the sereral churches; those churches de cause of those cominercial marts, which we denomi. dicated to the Holy Trinity have their feasts on Trinitynate fairs. The people resorted in crowds to the festi- Sunday; and so all the feasts are kept upon the Sunday val; and a considerable provision being wanted for before or after the saint's day to whom the churches their entertainment, little traders were invited by inte. are dedicated, because the people have not leisure to rest to bring their wares for sale. Thus among the observe them on the week-day; this (says his lordship) many pavilions for hospitality in the neighbourhood of is acceptable to the people, who otherwise go into the a church, various booths were erected for the sale of tipling houses, or else to conventicles. different commodities. In larger towns and populous ““ Church-Ales are, when the people go from afterdistricts, the resort of the people to the wakes would noon prayers on Sunday to their lawful sports and be great, and the attendance of the traders numerous ; pastimes in the churchyard, or in the neighbourhood, and this resort and attendance constitute a FAIR,” from in some public-house, where they driuk and make the Latin word feria, a holiday.


“ Clerk-Ales, are so called, because they were for PROTESTANT Wakes.

Those holy men, who effected the better maintenance of the parish-clerk, &c., - the the Reformation from Popery, were determinately op. people, thinking it unfit that the clerk should duly posed to the ancient wakes with their immoralities : but attend at church and gain but small wages, send himn in ihey were not able to accomplish the perfection of their provision, and then come on Sundays, and feast with various plans, inany of them being numbered with the him, by which means he sells more ale, &c. “Noble Aripy of Martyrs.” Elizabeth restored the A Bid-Ale is, when a poor man, decayed in his Reformation in part; but much of popery remained in substance, is set up again by the liberal benevolence numerous festivals and ceremonies, though many holy and contribution of his friends at a Sunday's feast." men, retaining the spirit of the Reformers, laboured for greater purity in the externals of religion, and the abo.

English Wokes in the Nineteenth Century. lition of the demoralizing and pernicious customs : We are not acquainted with every parish in the kinghence they were denominated Puritans. Their influ- dom ; but we well know, that many of the evils before ence with the religious and sober part of the nation was enumerated, have been abolished, or greatly countervery great; but King James disliked their strict, scrip- acted in not a few parishes in different parts of the tural inorality. He therefore commanded Bishop More. country. The active vigilance of patriotic magistrates; ton to draw up a declaration, commonly known by the the establishment of Sunday-schools for the religious name of the “Book of Sports,” to encourage recreations education of the poor; and especially the indefatiga. and sports on festivals and on the Lord's day. It states, ble zeal of itinerant preachers of the gospel, of dif“ That for his good people's recreation, his Majesty's ferent denomiuations, have been the means of incalcupleasure is, that, after the end of divine service, they lable benefit. Parts of Staffordshire, for example, at should not be disturbed, letted, or discouraged, from the commencement of this century, presented scenes any lawful recreations ; such as dancing, either of men the most shocking in many parishes among the colliers, or wonen ; archery for men; leaping, vaulting, or any nailers, iron-makers, miners, &c. : cock-fighting, bullsuch harmless recreations; nor having of May-games, baiting, badger-baiting, bear-baiting, with every Whitson-ales, or May.poles, or other sports therewith species of profaneness, intemperance, impurity, and used, so as the same inay be had in due and convenient brutality. In those same districts godliness now pretiine, without impediment or let of divine service; and vails in an eminent degree; and Wednesbury, Darlasthat women should have to carry rushes into the church ton, Tipton, Bilston, Oldbury, &c. &c., now are blessed for the decoring of it, according to their old customs; with many chapels, where the gospel is preached faithwithal prohibiting all unlawful games to be used on fully and “ with the Holy Ghost sent down from Sundays only; as bear-baiting, bull-baiting, interludes, heaven." Still an affecting measure of ungodliness and at all times (in the meaner sort of people prohi. prevails; and much remains to be done, fully to eranbited) bowling.” This declaration was ordered to be gelize the people. read in all the parish churches of Lancashire especially, Greenwich on Euster and Whit-Sunday, with several where papists abounded : and it was to have been read following days, and Deptford, on Trinity Sunday, in all the churches throughout England, but that the with fullowing days, are still cursed with almost every

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