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the brute beasts, who have their feet growing backward, Shakespeare referred to the insect, which is said to be conand turned behind the calves of their legs, howbeit they sidered a great delicacy at Tonquin, or to the fruit of the ruu most swiftly. The former Anthropophagi or eaters of locust-tree: “That viscous substance which the pod of the mans flesh whom we have placed above the north pole, locust contains, is perhaps, of all others, the most luscious. tenne daies journey by land above the river Borysthenes, From its likeness to honey, in consistency and flavour, the used to drinke out of the sculs of mens heads, and to locust is called the honey-tree also."-HENLEY. weare the scalpes, haire and all, in steed of mandellions or Coloquintida, says Parkinson in his Theatre of Plants, stomachers before their breasts.... Beyond the Sciopodes "runneth with his branches upon the ground as a gourd westward, some there be without heads standing upon or cowcumber doth. The fruit is small and round as a ball, their neckes who carrie eies in their shoulders."- PLINIE'S green at the first on the outside, and afterwards growing Natural Historie. Book yii. ch. 2.

to be of a browne yellow, which shell is as hard as a pompion or gourde ; and is usually pared away while it is

greene, the substance under it being white, very light, (5) SOENE III.-The food that to him now is as luscious as spongie or loose, and of an extreame bitter taste, almost locusts, shall be to him shortly as bitter as coloquintida.] It indurable, and provoking loathing or casting in many that is a question not easily settled whether by “locusts taste it.”—PARKINSON'S

Theatre of Plants, Tribe II. ch. 3.


(1) SCENE III.- Why, he drinks you, with facility, your Dane dead drunk ; he sweats not to overthrow your Almain ; he gives your Hollander a vomit, ere the next pottle can be filled.] The Englishman's potentiality in potting, was a common topic of satire with our old writers. In Beaumont and Fletcher's play of “The Captain," Act III. Sc. 2, Lodovico asks—

thorendell, Those of the new be these : 1. the jagge : 2. the beaker : 3. the double or single can or black pot," &c. See also Nash's Pierce Pennilesse (1592), on De Arte Bibendi ; Barnaby Rich's Irish Hubbub, 1618; and Harington's Nuge Antiquiæ, I. p. 348.

" Are the Englishmen

Such stubborn drinkers ?"


Then take thine auld cloak about thee.] The ballad whence the stanzas sung by Iago are taken is printed as follows in Capell's School of Shakespeare ; it will be found also in Percy's Reliques of Ancient Poetry.


And Piso answers,

"Not a leak at sea
Can suck more liquor: you shall have their children
Christen'd in mullid sack, and, at five years old,
Able to knock a Dane down. Take an Englishman,
And cry St. George! and give him but a rasber,
And you shall have him upon even terms
Defy a hogshead."

Peachem in his Complete Gentleman, 1622, p. 193, has a section entitled "Drinking the Plague of our English Gentry,” in which he remarks :-“Within these fiftie or three-score yeares it was a rare thing with us to see a drunken man, our nation carrying the name of the most sober and temperate of any other in the world. But since we had to doe in the quarrell of the Netherlands, about the time of Sir John Norris his first being there, the custom of drinking and pledging healthes was brought over into England; wherein let the Dutch be their own judges, if we equall them not; yea I think rather excell them.”

To the same effect, Heywood, in the Philocothonista, or the Drunkard opened, dissected, and anatomized,” 4to. London, 1635, tells us that—" There is now profest an eighth liberal art of science called Ars Bibendi, i.e. the Art of Drinking. The students or professors thereof call a greene garland or painted hoope hang'd out a College: a signe where there is lodging, man's

meate, and horse meate, an Inne of Courte, an Hall or an Hostle: where nothing is sold but ale and tobacco, a Grammar Schoole ; a red or blew lattice (the usual designation of an ale-house) that they terme a Free Schoole for all comers. The bookes which they study and whose leaves they do often turne over are for the most part three of the old translation and three of the new. Those of the old translation:-1. The tankard: 2. the blacke Jacke : 3, the quart pot ribd, or

" This winters weather waxeth cold

And frost doth freese on everie hill,
And Boreas blowes his blasts soe bold,

That all our cattell are like to spill;
Bell, my wife, who loves no strife,

She sayd unto me quietlie,
Rise up, and save cow Crumbockes life,
Man, put thine old cloak about thee.

“O Bell, why dost thou flyte and scorne?

Thou kenst my cloak is very thin;
It is soe bare and overworne,

A cricke he theron cannot renn:
Then Ile noe longer borrowe nor lend,

For once Ile new appareld bee,
To-morrow Ile to towne and spend,
For Ile have a new cloake about mee.

" Cow Crumbocke is a very good cowe,

Shee has been alwayes true to the payle,
Still has helpt us to butter and cheese I trow,

And other things she will not fayle :
I wold be loth to see her pine,

Good husband, councell take of mee,
It is not for us to goe so fine,
Then take thine old cloake about thee.

“My cloake it was a very good cloake,

Itt hath been alwayes true to the weare,
But now it is not worth a groat;

I have had it four-and-forty yeare.

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Sometime it was of cloth in graine,

Once in my life Ile do as they,
'Tis now but a sigh-clout, * as you may see,

For lle have a new cloake about mee.
It will neither hold out winde nor raine;
Ile have a new cloake about mee.


" King Stephen was a worthy peere, SHE.

His breeches cost him but a crowne;
“ It is four and fortye yeeres agoe

He held them sixpence all too deere,
Since th' one of us the other did ken;

Therefore he casld the taylor Lowne.
And we have had betwixt us twoe

He was a wight of high renowne,
of children either nine or ten :

And thouse but of a low degree;
Wee have brought them up to women and men :

Itts pride that putts the countreye downe,
In the feare of God I trow they bee;

Then take thine old cloake about thee.
And why wilt thou thyselfe misken?
Man, take thine old cloake about thee.


“ Bell, my wife she loves not strife, HE.

Yet she will lead me if she can;
“O Bell, my wiffe, why dost thou floute?

And oft, to live a quiet life,
Now is nowe, and then was then:

I am forced to yield, though Ime good man.
Seeke now all the world throughout,

Itts not for a man with a woman to threape, *
Thou kenst not clowns from gentlemen.

Unlesse he first give oer the plea:
They are cladd in blacke, greane, yellowe, or gray,

Where I began wee now mun leave,
Soe far above their own degree:

And take mine old cloake about mee."


for the time. And verily if they bo so bold as to take a great quantity thereof in drink, they are sure to die for it. Yet it may be used safely ynough for to procure sleepe if there be good regard had in the dose, that it be answerable in proportion to the strength and complexion of the patient. Also it is an ordinary thing to drink it against the poyson of serpents: likewise before the cutting, cauterizing, pricking, or launcing of any member to take away the sence or feeling of such extreme cures. And sufficient it is in some bodies to cast them into a sleepe with the smell of Mandrage.”- PLINIE'S Natural Historie, Bk. XXV. ch. 13.


But he that filches from me my good name,
Robs me of that which not enriches him,

And makes me poor indeed.]
Mr. Halliwell in his Life of Shakespeare, p. 190, ed. 8vo.,
cites the subjoined lines from a MS. entitled “The
Newe Metamorphosis, or a Feaste of Fancie, or Poeticall
Legendes, written by J. M. Gent, 1600," as proof that
“Othello" must have been produced before that year:-

“ The highwayman that robs one of his purse

Is not soe bad; nay, these are ten tymes worse !
For these doe rob men of their pretious name,

And in exchange give obliquie and shame."
But the reflection is sufficiently trite, and in both in-
stances, as in many others where it occurs, was probably
founded on the following passages :-

“Is not that Treasure which before all other, is most regarded of honest persons, the good Fame of Man and Woman, lost through whoredom ”-Homily XI. pt. 2.

“Now here consider that St. Paul numbreth a Scolder, Brawler, or a Picker of Quarrels, a mong Thieves and Idolators, and many Times there cometh less Hurt of a Thiefe than of a railing tongue. For the one taketh away a Mans good name, the other taketh but his Riches, which is of much less Value and Estimation, than is his good name." -Homily XII. pt. l.

(3) SCENE III.—The spirit-stirring drum, the ear-piercing fife.) “In mentioning the fife joined with the drum, Shak. speare, as usual, paints from the life; those instruments accompanying each other being used in his age by the English soldiery. The fife, however, as a martial instrument, was afterwards entirely discontinued among our troops for many years, but at length revived in the war before the last.' It is commonly supposed that our soldiers borrowed it from the Highlanders in the last rebellion : but I do not know that the fife is peculiar to the Scotch, or even used at all by them. It was first used within the memory of man among our troops by the British guards, by order of the Duke of Cumberland, when they were encamped at Maestricht, in the year 1747, and thence soon adopted into other English regiments of infantry. They took it from the Allies with whom they served. This instrument, accompanying the drum, is of considerable antiquity in the European armies, particularly the German. In a curious picture in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford, painted 1525, representing the siege of Pavia by the French King, where the emperor was taken prisoner, we see fifes and drums. In an old English treatise written by William Garrard before 1587, and published by one captain Hitchcock in 1591, intituled The Art of Warre, there are several wood cuts of military evolutions, in which these instruments are both introduced. In Rymer's Fædera, in a diary of King Henry's siege of Bulloigue,

(2) SCENE III.-Not poppy, nor mandragora.) “The herb Mandragoras some writers call Circeium: two or three roots it hath of a fleshie substance running downe into the earth almost a cubit, and a fruit or apple of the bignesse of filberds or hazel-nuts, within which there be seeds like unto the pippins of peares. • • . In some countries they venture to eat the apples or fruit thereof: but those that know not how to dresse and order them aright loose the use of their tongue thereby, and prove dumbe

* Sigh-clout. A cloth to strain milk through.

* To threape. To dispute.


1544, mention is made of the drommes and viffleurs march- home, and, taken up with other thoughts, never recol. ing at the head of the King's army.--Tom. xv. p. 53. lected her handkerchief till some days after ; when, not

“The drum and fife were also much used at ancient being able to find it, she began to fear that the Moor festivals, shows, and processions. Gerard Leigh, in his should ask her for it, as he often did. The infamous Accidence of Armorie, printed in 1576, describing a ensign, watching his opportunity, went to the lieutenant, Christmas magnificently celebrated at the Inner Temple, and, to aid his wicked purpose, left the handkerchief on says, “We entered the prince his hall, where anon we his bolster. The lieutenant did not find it till the next heard the noyse of drum and fife.'--P. 119.

morning, when, getting up, he set his foot upon it as it At a stately masque on Shrove-Sunday, 1510, in which had fallen to the floor. Not being able to imagine how it King Henry VIII. was an actor, Holinshed mentions the came there, and knowing it to be Desdemona's, he deterentry of a drum and fife apparelled in white damaske mined to carry it back to her; and, waiting till the Moor and grene bonnettes.' --Chron. III. 805, col. 2. There was gone out, he went to the back-door and knocked. are many more instances in Holinshed and Stow's Survey Fortune, who seemed to have conspired along with the of London."-WARTON.

ensign the death of this poor woman, brought the Moor

home in the same instant. Hearing some one knock, he (4) SCENE IV.

went to the window, and, much disturbed, asked who is

there? The lieutenant hearing his voice, and fearing that I had rather have lost my purse

when he came down he should do him some mischief, ran Full of crusadoes.]

away without answering. The Moor came down, and " The cruzado was not current, as it should seem, at

finding no one either at the door or in the street, returned Venice, though it certainly was in England in the time of

full of suspicion to his wife, and asked if she knew who it Shakspeare, who has here indulged his usual practice of

was that had knocked. She answered with great truth departing from national costume. It was of gold, and

that she knew not. But I think,' said he, it was the weighed two penny-weights six grains, or nine shillings

lieutenant;'-' It might be he,' said she, or any one English.”—DOUCE, Illustrations of Shakspeare.

else.' The Moor checked himself at the time, though he was violently enraged, and determined to take no step

without first consulting the ensign. To him he imme(5) SCENE IV.

diately went, and related what had just happened, the hearts of old gave hands;

begging him to learn from the lieutenant what he But our new heraldry is hands, not hearts.] I could on the subject. The ensign rejoiced much in The antithesis of hearts and hands appears to have been a

this accident, and promised to do so. He contrived favourite with Shakespeare and the writers of his age :

to enter into discourse with him one day in a place

where the Moor might see them. He talked with so in “The Tempest "Act III. Scene I. :

him on a very different subject, laughed much, and My husband, then ?

expressed by his motions and attitudes very great Per. Ay, with a heart as willing

surprise. The Moor as soon as he saw them separate As bondage e'er of freedom : here's my hand.

went to the ensign, and desired to know what had Min. And mine, with my heart in 't."

passed between them. The ensign, after many solicitaSo also in Warner's Albion's England :

tions, at last told him that he had concealed nothing from My hand shall never give

him. He says he has enjoyed your wife every time that My heart, my heart shall give my hand."

you have stayed long enough from home to give him an

opportunity, and that in their last interview she had And Mr. Singer has quoted a passage from the essays of made him a present of that handkerchief which you gave Sir William Cornwallis the younger, 1601, where we have her when you married her.* The Moor thanked him, and the words in similar opposition :—"We of these later thought that if his wife had no longer the handkerchief times, full of a nice curiositie, mislike all the performances in her possession it would be a proof that the ensign had of our forefathers; we say they were honest plaine men, told him the truth. For which reason one day after but they want the capering wits of this ripe age. They dinner, among other subjects, he asked her for this had wont to give their hands and hearts together, but we handkerchief. The poor woman, who had long apprethink it a finer grace to looke asquint, our hand looking hended this, blushed excessively at the question, and, to one way and our heart another.” Warburton conjectured, hide ber change of colour, which the Moor had very and Malone at one time was of the same opinion, that the accurately observed, ran to her wardrobe and pretended expression, “our new heraldry" was a satirical reflection to look for it. After having searched for some time, 'I upon King James' creation of baronets. But to this it cannot conceive,' said she, what is become of it! have has been objected that the new order was not created not you taken it?' 'Had I taken it,' replied he, I until 1611, while the play was written before November should not have asked you for it. But you may look for 1604; and it is in the highest degree improbable that an it another time more at your ease.' Leaving her then, he allusion so offensive to the king was inserted afterwards, began to reflect what would be the best way of putting to

death his wife and the lieutenant, and how he might (6) SCENE IV.-Away!] The incident of the handker

avoid being prosecuted for the murder. Thinking night chief, which Shakespeare has invested with such terrible

and day on this subject, he could not prevent Desdemona sublimity, is derived from the novel in the Hecatommithi,

from perceiving that his behaviour was very different from on which this play was founded :

what it had been formerly. She often asked him what it “I have already said that Desdemona went frequently

was that agitated him so violently. 'You, who were once to the ensign's house, and passed great part of the day

the merriest man alive, are now the most melancholy.' with his wife. The villain had observed that she often

The Moor answered and alleged a variety of reasons, but brought with her a handkerchief that the Moor had given

she was not satisfied with any of them; and knowing that her, and which, as it was very delicately worked in the

she had done nothing to justify so much agitation, she Moorish taste, was very highly valued by them both; he

began to fear that he grew tired of her. She once in determined to steal it, and by its means complete her

conversation with the ensign's wife expressed herself thus : ruin. He had a little girl of three years old that was

'I know not what to say of the Moor; he used to treat much caressed by Desdemona; and one day, when that

me most affectionately; and I begin to fear that my unhappy woman was on a visit to this villain, he took up

example will teach young women never to marry against the child in his arms and presented it to Desdemona, who

their parents' consent, and the Italians in particular, not received it and pressed it to her bosom. In the same instant this deceiver stole from her sash the bandkerchief, with such dexterity, that she did not perceive him; and

* In the tolerably correct but far from elegant translation of went away with it in very high spirits. Desdemona went

W. Parr, which we adopt, the words "when you married her "

(quando la sposaste) are inadvertently omitted.

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to connect themselves with men from whom they are separated by nature, climate, education, and complexion. But as I know him to be the confidential of your husband, whom he consults on all occasions, I intreat you, if you have heard anything that might explain this mystery and be of use to me, not to deny me your assistance. These words were accompanied with a flood of tears.

The ensign's wife, who knew all (as her husband had in vain endeavoured to prevail upon her to become an accom. plice in the murder of Desdemona), but durst tell her nothing for fear of her husband, only said, "Take care not to give the Moor any cause for suspicion, and do all in your power to convince him of your affection and fidelity. Why so I do,' said she, “but to no purpose.' The Moor, in the meantime, did all in his power to prove what he desired not to find true, and begged the ensign to make him see the handkerchief in possession of the lieutenant.

this was difficult undertaking, yet the villain promised to do all in his power to give him a satisfactory proof of this. The lieutenant had a woman in the house, who was a notable embroiderer in muslin, and

who, struck with the beauty of Desdemona's handkerchief, determined to copy it before it should be returned to her. She set about making one like it, and while she was at work, the ensign discovered that she sat at a window where any one who passed in the street might see her, This he took care to point out to the Moor, who was then fully persuaded that his chaste and innocent wife was an adultress. He agreed with the ensign to kill both her and the lieutenant; and, consulting together about the means, the Moor entreated him to undertake the assassination of the officer, promising never to forget so great an obligation, He refused, however, to attempt what was so very difficult and dangerous, as the lieutenant was equally brave and vigilant; but with much entreaty and considerable presents, he was prevailed on to say that he would hazard the experiment. One dark night, after taking this resolution, he observed the lieutenant coming out of the house of a female libertine where he usually passed his evenings, and assaulted him sword in hand. He struck at his legs with a view of bringing him to the ground, and with the first blow cut him quite through the right thigh.”


(1) SCENE I. Is't possible lConfess |--Handkerchief!-0, devill

(Falls in a trance.] "The starts and broken reflections in this speech have something very terrible, and show the mind of the speaker to be in inexpressible agonies."—WARBURTON.

“When many confused and very interesting ideas pour in upon the mind all at once, and with such rapidity that it has not time to shape or digest them, if it does not relieve itself by tears (which we know it often does, whether for joy or grief) it produces stupefaction and fainting

“Othello, in broken sentences, and single words, all of which have a reference to the cause of his jealousy, shows, that all the proofs are present at once to his mind, which so overpowers it, that he falls into a trance, the natural consequence."-SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS. (2) SCENE III.

My mother had a maid call d Barbara :
She was in love; and he she lov'd prov'd mad,
And did forsake her : she had a song of Willow,
An old thing 't was, but it express'd her fortune,

“My love she is turned ; untrue she doth prove :

O willow, &c.
She renders me nothing but hate for my love.

O willow, &c.
“O pitty me (cried he) ye lovers, each one;

O willow, &c.
Her heart's hard as marble ; she rues not my mone.

O willow, &c.
“ The cold streams ran by him, his eyes wept apace;

O willow, &c. The salt tears fell from him, which drowned his face :

O wi &c. “ The mute birds sate by him, made tame by his mones :

O willow, &c. The salt tears fell from him, which softned the stones,

O willow, &c.
“ Let nobody blame me, her scornes I do prove;

O willow, &c.
She was born to be faire; I, to die for her love.

O willow, &c.
“O that beauty should harbour a heart that's so hard!

O willow, &c.
My true love rejecting without all regard.

O willow, &c.
" Let love no more boast him in palace or bower;

O willow, &c.
For women are trothles, and flote in an houre.

O willow, &c. “ But what helps complaining? In vaine I complaine;

O willow, &c.
I must patiently suffer her scorne and disdaire,

O willow, &c.
" Come, all you forsaken, and sit down by me,

O willow, &c. He that

plaines of his false love, mine’s falser than she.

O & " The willow wreath weare I, since my love doth fleete;

O willow, willow, willow !
A Garland for lovers forsaken most meete,

O willow, willow, willow !

O willow, willow, willow !
Sing, O the greene willow shall be my garland."

And she died singing it.] The old ballarl so pathetically introduced has been reprinted by Capell and Dr. Percy from a black-letter copy in the Pepys' collection at Cambridge. The original, which we append, is the lament not of a forsaken semale, but of a “lass-lorn bachelor," and Shakespeare, in adapting it for a woman, has slightly altered, and added to, the words:


“ A poore soule sat sighing under a sicamore tree;

O willow, willow, willow !
With his hand on his bosom, his head on his knee:

O willow, willow, willow!

willow, willow, willow!
Sing, O the greene willow shall be my garland.
“ He sigh'd in his singing, and after each grone,

Come willow, &c.
I am dead to all pleasure, my true love is gone;

O willow, &c.

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(1) SCENE II.-I have done the state some service.) The policy of the Venetian coinmonwealth in never permitting a citizen to have command of the army, is mentioned more than once by Contareno :

To exclude therfore out of our estate the danger or occasion of any such ambitious enterprises, our auncesters held it a better course to defend their dominions uppon the continent with forreyn mercenarie souldiers, than with their homeborn citizens, and to assigne them their pay and stipende out of the tributes and receipts of the Province, wherin they remayned: for it is just, and reasonable, that the souldiers shoulde be maintained at the charge of those in whose defence they are employed, and into their warfare, have many of our associates been ascribed, some of which have attained to the highest degree of commandement in our army.

*.* The Cittizens therefore of Venice, for this only course are deprived of the honors belonging to warres by land, and are contented to transferre them over to straungers to which ende there was a lawe solemnely decreede, that no gentleman of Venice should have the charge and commaundement of above five and twentio souldiers," &c. (2) SCENE II.

of one, whose hand, Like the base Indian, threw a pearl away, Richer than all his tribe.]

So the quartos. In the folio we have,

or one whose hand (Like the base Iudean) threw," &c. Upon these two readings the commentators are at issue. Theobald, Warburton, Farmer, and Malone, all advocate Judean, considering that the allusion is manifestly to the story of Herod and Mariamme. This view of the passage has been very ably supported too, of late, by a correspondent in Mr. G. White's Shakespeare's Scholar, &c. p. 443. On the other hand, the latest editors, Messrs. Dyce, Collier, and Knight, side with Boswell, who preferred Indian, and adduced the following quotations, from succeeding poets, in maintenance of that lection :

“ So the unskilfull Indian those bright gems

Which might adde majestie to diadems
'Mong the waves scatters."

Habington's Castara.To Castara weeping. And

“ Behold my queen-
Who with no more concern l'le cast away
Then Indians do a pearl that ne're did know
Its value."

The Woman's Conquest, by Sir Edward Howard. We, too, follow the quartos, but must admit that a good case has been made out for the reading of the folia

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