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to get their living. Therfore in this poynte, sickely faces, and patched cotes, will not not you onlye, but also the most part of the take them into service. And husbandmen world, be like evyll scholemaisters, which be dare not set them a worke: Knowynge wel readyer to beate, then to teache, their ynoughe that he is nothing mete to doe scholers. For great and horrible punish- trewe and faythful service to a poore man mentes be appointed for theves, whereas wyth a spade and a mattoke for small wages much rather provision should have ben made, and hard fare, whyche beynge deyntely and that there were some meanes, whereby they tenderly pampered up in ydilnes and pleasmyght get their livyng, so that no man ure, was wont with a sworde and a buckler shoulde be dryven to this extreme necessitie, by hys syde to jette through the strete with firste to steale, and then to dye. Yes (quod a bragginge loke, and to thynke hym selfe he) this matter is wel ynough provided for to good to be anye mans mate. Naye by already. There be handy craftes, there is saynt Mary sir (quod the lawier) not so. husbandrye to gette their livynge by, if they For this kinde of men muste we make would not willingly be nought. Nay, quod moste of. For in them as men of stowter I, you shall not skape so: for first of all, I stomackes, bolder spirites, and manlyer wyll speake nothynge of them, that come courages then handycraftes men and plowehome oute of the warres, maymed and lame, men be, doth consiste the whole powre, as not longe ago, oute of Blackeheath fielde, strength and puissaunce of oure army, when and a litell before that, out of the warres in we muste fight in battayle. Forsothe, sir, as Fraunce: suche, I saye, as put their lives well you myghte saye (quod I) that for in jeoperdye for the weale publiques or the warres sake you muste cheryshe theves. For kynges sake, and by reason of weakenesse surely you shall never lacke theves, whyles and lamenesse be not hable to occupye their you have them. No, nor theves be not the olde craftes, and be to aged to lerne new : most false and faynt harted soldiers, nor of them I wyll speake nothing, forasmuch as souldiours be not the cowardleste theves: so warres have their ordinarie recourse. But wel thees ii. craftes agree together. But this let us •considre those thinges that chaunce faulte, though it be much used amonge you, daily before our eyes. First there is a great yet is it not peculiar to you only, but comnumbre of gentlemen, which can not be con- men also almoste to all nations. Yet Fraunce tent to live idle themselves, lyke dorres, of besides this is troubled and infected with a that whiche other have laboured for: their much sorer plage. The whole royalme is tenauntes I meane, whom they polle and fylled and besieged with hiered souldiours in shave to the quicke, by reisyng their rentes peace tyme (yf that bee peace) whyche be (for this onlye poynte of frugalitie do they brought in under the same colour and preuse, men els through their lavasse and tense, that hath persuaded you to kepe these prodigall spendynge, hable to brynge theym- | ydell servynge men. For thies wyse fooles selfes to verye beggerye) these gentlemen, and verye archedoltes thought the wealthe of I say, do not only live in idlenesse them- the whole countrey herin to consist, if there selves, but also carrye about with them at were ever in a redinesse a stronge and their tailes a great flocke or traine of idle sure garrison, specially of old practised and loyterynge servyngmen, which never souldiours, for they put no trust at all in learned any craft wherby to gette their men unexercised. And therfore they must livynges. These men

as their be forced to seke for warre, to the ende thei mayster is dead, or be sicke themselfes, be may ever have practised souldiours and cunincontinent thrust out of dores. For gentle- nyng mansleiers, lest that (as it is pretely men hadde rather keepe idle persones, then savde of Salust) their handes and their sicke men, and many times the dead mans mindes through idlenes or lacke of exercise, heyre is not hable to mainteine so great a should waxe dul. But howe pernitious and house, and kepe so many serving men as his pestilente a thyng it is to maintayne suche father dyd. Then in the meane season they beastes, the Frenche men, by their owne that be thus destitute of service, either harmes have learned, and the examples of starve for honger, or manfullve playe the the Romaynes, Carthaginiens, Syriens, and theves. For what would you have them to do? When they have wandred abrode so

of manye other countreyes doo manifestly

declare. For not onlye the Empire, but also longe, unty! they have worne thredebare the fieldes and Cities of all these, by divers their apparell, and also appaired their helth, occasions have been overrunned and dethen gentlemen because of their pale and stroyed of their owne armies before hande



had in a redinesse. Now how unnecessary weale publique: leave no grounde for tillage, a thinge this is, hereby it maye appeare: thei inclose al into pastures: thei throw that the Frenche souldiours, which from doune houses: they plucke downe townes, their youth have ben practised and inured in and leave nothing standynge, but only the feates of armes, do not cracke nor advaunce churche to be made a shepe-howse. And as themselfes to have very often gotte the up- thoughe you loste no small quantity of per hand and maistry of your new made grounde by forests, chases, laundes, and and unpractised souldiours. But in this parkes, those good holy men turne all dwellpoynte I wyll not use many woordes, leste inge places and all glebeland into desolation perehaunce I maye seeme to flatter you. and wildernes. Therfore that one covetous No, nor those same handy crafte men of and unsatiable cormaraunte and very plage yours in cities, nor yet the rude and up- of his natyve contrey maye compasse aboute landish plowmen of the countreye, are not and inclose many thousand akers of grounde supposed to be greatly affrayde of your together within one pale or hedge, the husgentlemens idle servyngmen, unlesse it be bandmen be thrust owte of their owne, or suche as be not of body or stature corre- els either by coveyne and fraude, or by viospondent to their strength and courage, or lent oppression they be put besydes it, or els whose bolde stomakes be discouraged by wronges and injuries thei be so weried, throughe povertie. Thus you may see, that that they be compelled to sell all: by one it is not to be feared lest they shoulde be meanes therfore or by other, either by hooke effeminated, if thei were brought up in good or crooke they muste needes departe awaye, craftes and laboursome woorkes, whereby poore, selye, wretched soules, men, women, to gette their livynges, whose stoute and husbands, wives, fatherlesse children, widsturdye bodyes (for gentlemen vouchsafe to owes, wofull mothers, with their yonge babes, corrupte and spill none but picked and and their whole houshold smal in substance, chosen men) now either by reason of rest and muche in numbre, as husbandrye reand idlenesse be brought to weakenesse: or quireth manye handes. Awaye thei trudge, els by to easy and wom

omanly exercises be I say, out of their knowen and accustomed made feble and unlable to endure hardnesse. houses, fyndynge no place to reste in. All Truly howe so ever the case standeth, thys their housholdestuffe, whiche is verye litle me thinketh is nothing avayleable to the woorthe, thoughe it myght well abide the weale publique, for warre sake, which you sale: yet beeynge sodainely thruste oute, never have, but when you wyl your selfes, to they be constrayned to sell it for a thing of kepe and mainteyn an unnumerable flocke of nought. And when they have wandered that sort of men, that be so troublesome and abrode tyll that be spent, what can they noyous in peace, wherof you ought to have then els doo but steale, and then justly a thowsand times more regarde, then of pardy be hanged, or els go about a begwarre. But yet this is not only the neces- gyng. And yet then also they be caste in sary cause of stealing. There is an other, prison as vagaboundes, because they go whych, as I suppose, is proper and peculiar aboute and worke not: whom no man wyl to you Englishmen alone. What is that, set a worke, though thei never so willyngly quod the Cardinal? Forsoth my

lorde (quod profre themselves therto. For one ShepI ) your shepe that were wont to be so meke hearde or Heardman is ynoughe to eate up and tame, and so smal eaters, now, as I that grounde with cattel, to the occupiyng heare saye, be become so great devowerers wherof aboute husbandrye manye handes and so wylde, that they eate up, and swal- were requisite. And this is also the cause low downe the very men them selfes. They why victualles be now in many places dearer. consume, destroye, and devoure whole fieldes, Yea, besides this the price of wolle is so howses, and cities. For looke in what partes rysen, that poore folkes, which were wont to of the realme doth growe the fynest, and worke it, and make cloth therof, be nowe therfore dearest woll, there noblemen, and hable to bye none at all. And by thys gentlemen: yea and certeyn Abbottes, holy meanes verye manye be forced to forsake men no doubt, not contenting them selfes worke, and to geve them selves to idelnesse. with the yearely revenues and profytes, that For after that so much grounde was inwere wont to grow to theyr forefathers and closed for pasture, an infinite multitude of predecessours of their landes, nor beynge shepe dyed of the rotte, suche vengeaunce content that they live in rest and pleasure God toke of their inordinate and unsaciable nothinge profiting, yea much noyinge the covetousness, sendinge amonge the shepe that

pestiferous morrein, whiche much more justely shoulde have fallen on the shepemasters owne heades. And though the number of shepe increase never so faste, yet the price falleth not one myte, because there be so fewe sellers. For they be almooste all comen into a fewe riche mennes handes, whome no neade forceth to sell before they lust, and they luste not before they maye sell as deare as they luste. Now the same cause bringeth in like dearth of the other kindes of cattell, yea and that so much the more, bicause that after fermes plucked downe, and husbandry decaied, there is no man that passethe for the breadynge of younge stoore. For these riche men brynge not up the yonge ones of greate cattel as they do lambes. But first they bie them abrode verie chepe, and afterward when they be fatted in their pastures, they sell them agayne excedynge deare. And therefore (as I suppose) the whole incommoditie hereof is not yet felte. For yet they make dearth onely in those places, where they sell. But when they shall fetche them away from thence wheare they be bredde faster then they can be broughte up: then shall there also be felte greate dearth, stoore beginning there to faile, where the ware is boughte. Thus the unreasonable covetousnes of a few hath turned that thing to the utter undoing of your ylande, in the whiche thynge the chiefe felicitie of your realme did consist. For this greate dearth of victualles causeth men to kepe as litle houses, and as smale hospitalitie as they possible maye, and to put away their servauntes: whether, I pray you, but a beggynge: or elles (whyche these gentell bloudes and stoute stomackes wyll sooner set their myndes unto) a stealing? Nowe to amende the matter, to this wretched beggerye and miserable povertie is joyned greate wantonnes, importunate superfluitie, and excessive riote. For not only gentle mennes servauntes, but also handicraft men: yea and almooste the ploughmen of the countrey, with al other sortes of people, use muche straunge and proude newefanglenes in their apparell, and to muche prodigall riotte and sumptuous fare at their table. Nowe bawdes, queines, whoores, harlottes, strumpettes, brothelhouses, stewes, and yet another stewes, wyne tavernes, ale houses, and tipling houses, with so manye noughtie, lewde, and unlawfull games, as dyce, cardes, tables, tennis, boules, coytes, do not all these sende the haunters of them streyghte a stealynge, when theyr money is gone? Caste

oute these pernicyous abhominations, make a lawe, that they, whiche plucked downe fermes, and townes of husbandrie, shal reedifie them, or els yelde and uprender the possession therof to suche as wil go to the cost of buylding them anewe. Suffer not these riche men to bie up al, to ingrosse, and forstalle, and with their monopolie to kepe the market alone as please them. Let not so many be brought up in idelnes, let husbandry and tillage be restored, let clotheworkinge be renewed, that ther may be honest labours for this idell sort to passe their tyme in profitablye, whiche hitherto either povertie hath caused to be theves, or elles nowe be either vagabondes, or idel serving men, and shortelye wilbe theves. Doubtles onles you finde a remedy for these enormities, you shall in vaine advaunce your selves of executing justice upon fellons. For this justice is more beautiful in apperaunce, and more flourishynge to the shewe, then either juste or profitable. For by suffring your youthe wantonlie and viciously to be brought up, and to be infected, even frome theyr tender age, by litle and litle with vice: then a goddes name to be punished, when they commit the same faultes after being come to mans state, which from their youthe they were ever like to do: In this pointe, I praye you, what other thing do you, then make theves and then punish them?

3. A Discourse Upon International Relations, Happiness, and Reformers

But yet, all this notwithstandinge, I can by no meanes chaunge my mind, but that I must nedes beleve, that you, if you be disposed, and can fynde in youre hearte to followe some princes courte, shall with your good counselles greatlye helpe and further the commen wealthe. Wherfore there is nothynge more apperteining to youre dewty, that is to saye, to the dewtie of a good man. For where as your Plato judgeth that weale publiques shall by this meanes atteyne perfecte felicitie, eyther if philosophers be kynges, or elles if kynges geve themselves to the studie of philosophie, how farre I praye you, shall commen wealthes then be frome thys felicitie, yf philosophers wyll vouchesaufe to enstruct kinges with their good counsell? They be not so unkinde (quod he) but they woulde gladlye do it, yea, manye have done it alreadye in bookes that they have put furthe, if kynges and princes would be willynge and readye to folowe


good counsell. But Plato doubtlesse dyd all in this to make peace with the Englishwell foresee, oneless kynges themselves men, and with mooste suer and stronge woulde applye their mindes to the studye of bandes to bynde that weake and feable Philosophie, that elles they woulde never frendeshippe, so that they muste be called thoroughlye allowe the counsell of Philoso- frendes, and hadde in suspicion as enemyes. phers, beynge themselves before even from And that therfore the Skottes muste be their tender age infected, and corrupt with hadde in a readines, as it were in a perverse, and evill opinions. Whiche thynge standynge, readie at all occasions, in aunters Plato hymselfe proved trewe in kinge the Englishmen shoulde sturre never Dionyse. If I shoulde propose to any kyng | lytle, incontinent to set upon them. And wholsome decrees, doynge my endevoure to moreover previlie and secretlye (for openlie plucke out of hys mynde the pernicious it maye not be done by the truce that is originall causes of vice and noughtines, taken) privelie therefore I saye to make thinke you not that I shoulde furthewith muche of some Piere of Englande, that is either be driven awaye, or elles made a bannished hys countrey, whiche muste cleime laughyng stocke? Well suppose I were with title to the crowne of the realme, and affirme the Frenche kynge, and there syttinge in his hym selfe juste inherytoure thereof, that by counsell, whiles in that mooste secrete con- this subtill meanes they maye holde to them sultation, the kynge him selfe there beynge the kinge, in whome elles they have but presente in hys owne personne, they beate small truste and affiaunce.

Here I saye, their braynes, and serche the verye bottomes where so great and heyghe matters be in of their wittes to discusse by what crafte consultation, where so manye noble and and meanes the kynge maye styl kepe Myl- wyse menne counsell theyr kynge onelie to layne, and drawe to him againe fugitive warre, here yf I, selie man, shoulde rise up Naples, and then howe to conquere the and will them to tourne over the leafe, and Venetians, and howe to bringe under his learne a newe lesson, sayinge that my counjurisdiction all Italie, then howe to win the sell is not to medle with Italy, but to tarye dominion of Flaunders, Brabant, and of all styll at home, and that the kyngedome of Burgundie: with divers other landes, whose Fraunce alone is almooste greater, then that kingdomes he hath longe ago in mind and it maye well be governed of one man: so purpose invaded. Here whiles one counsel

that the kynge shoulde not nede to studye leth to conclude a legue of peace with the howe to gette more; and then shoulde proVenetians, so longe to endure, as shall be

pose unto them the decrees of the people that thought mete and expedient for their pur- be called the Achoriens, whiche be situate pose, and to make them also of their coun- over agaynste the Ilande of Utopia on the sell, yea, and besides that to geve them part south-easte side. These Achoriens ones made of the pray, whiche afterwarde, when they warre in their kinges quarrell for to gette have brought theyr purpose about after him another kingdome, whiche he laide their owne myndes, they maye require and claime unto, and avaunced hymselfe ryghte elayme againe. Another thinketh best to inheritoure to the crowne thereof, by the hiere the Germaynes. Another woulde have tytle of an olde aliaunce. At the last when the favoure of the Swychers wonne with they had gotten it, and sawe that they hadde money. Anothers advyse is to appease the even as muche vexation and trouble in puissaunte power of the Emperoures kepynge it, as they had in gettynge it, and majestie wyth golde, as with a moste pleas- that either their newe conquered subjectes aunte, and acceptable sacrifice. Whiles by sundrye occasions were makynge daylye another gyveth counsell to make peace wyth insurrections to rebell against them, or els the kynge of Arragone, and to restoore unto that other countreis were continuallie with him hys owne kyngedome of Navarra, as divers inrodes and forragynges invadynge full assuraunce of peace. Another commeth them: so that they were ever fighting either in with his five egges, and adviseth to hooke for them, or agaynste them, and never coulde in the kynge of Castell with some hope of breake up theyr campes: Seyng them selves affinitie or allyaunce, and to bringe to their in the meane season pylled and impoverparte certeine Pieers of his courte for greate ished: their money caried out of the realme: pensions. Whiles they all staye at the their own men killed to maintaine the glorye chiefeste doubte of all, what to do in the of an other nation: when they had no warre, meane time with Englande, and yet agree peace nothynge better then warre, by reason

that their people in war had so inured themselves to corrupte and wicked maners: that they had taken a delite and pleasure in robbinge and stealing: that through manslaughter they had gathered boldnes to mischiefe: that their lawes were had in contempte, and nothing set by or regarded: that their king beynge troubled with the charge and governaunce of two kingdomes, could not nor was not hable perfectlie to discharge his office towardes them both: seing againe that all these evelles and troubles were endles: at the laste layde their heades together, and like faithfull and lov-. inge subjectes gave to their kynge free choise and libertie to kepe styll the one of these two kingdomes whether he would: alleginge that he was not hable to kepe both, and that they were mo then might well be governed of halfe a king: forasmuche as no man woulde be content to take him for his mulettour, that kepeth an other mans moyles besydes his. So this good prince was constreyned to be content with his olde kyngedome and to.geve over the newe to one of his frendes. Who shortelye after was violentlie driven out. Furthermore if I shoulde declare unto them, that all this busie preparaunce to warre, wherby so many nations for his sake should be broughte into a troublesome hurleiburley, when all his coffers were emptied, his treasures wasted, and his people destroied, should at the length through some mischance be in vaine and to none effect: and that therfore it were best for him to content him selfe with his owne kingedome of Fraunce, as his forfathers and predecessours did before him to make much of it, to enrich it, and to make it as flourisshing as he could, to endevoure him selfe to love his subjectes, and againe to be beloved of them, willingly to live with them, peaceably to governe them, and with other kyngdomes not to medle, seinge that whiche he hath all reddy is even ynoughe for him, yea and more than he can well turne hym to: this myne advyse, maister More, how thinke you it would be harde and taken? So God helpe me, not very thankefully, quod I. Wel, let us procede then, quod he. Suppose that some kyng and his counsel were together whettinge their wittes and devisinge, what subtell crafte they myght invente to enryche the kinge with great treasures of money. First one counselleth to rayse and enhaunce the valuation of money when the kinge must paye anye: and agayne to calle downe the value of

coyne to lesse then it is worthe, when he muste receive or gather any. For thus great sommes shal be payd wyth a lytyl money, and where lytle is due muche shal be receaved. Another counselleth to fayne warre, that when under this coloure and pretence the kyng hath gathered greate aboundaunce of money, he maye, when it shall please him, make peace with greate solempnitie and holye ceremonies, to blinde the eyes of the poore communaltie, as taking pitie and compassion forsothe upon mans bloude, lyke a loving and a mercifull prince. Another putteth the kynge in remembraunce of certeine olde and moughteeaten lawes, that of longe tyme have not bene put in execution, whych because no man can remembre that they were made, everie man hath transgressed. The fynes of these lawes he counselleth the kynge to require: for there is no waye so proffitable, nor more honorable, as the whyche hathe a shewe and coloure of justice. Another advyseth him to forbidde manye thinges under greate penalties and fines, specially suche thinges as is for the peoples profit not be used, and afterwarde to dispence for money with them, whyche by this prohibition substeyne losse and dammage. For by this meanes the favour of the people is wonne, and profite riseth two wayes. First by takinge forfaytes of them whome covetousnes of gaynes hath brought in daunger of this statute, and also by sellinge privileges and licences, whyche the better that the prince is, forsothe the deerer he selleth them: as one that is lothe to graunte to any private persone anye thinge that is against the proffite of his people. And therefore maye sel none but at an exceding dere pryce. Another giveth the kynge counsel to endaunger unto his grace the judges of the Realme, that he maye have them ever on his side, and that they maye in everye matter despute and reason for the kynges right. Yea and further to call them into his palace and to require them there to argue and discusse his matters in his owne presence. So there shal be no matter of his so openlye wronge and unjuste, wherein one or other of them, either because he wyl have sumthinge to allege and objecte or that he is ashamed to saye that whiche is sayde alreadye, or els to pike a thanke with his prince, wil not fynde some hole open to set a snare in, wherewith to take the contrarie parte in a trippe. Thus whiles the judges cannot agree amonges them selfes,

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