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oft. 24. Of the Jews five times received I (r) forty stripes save one. 26. Thrice was I beaten with (*) rods, once was I stoned, thrice 1 suffered shipwreck, a night and a day I have been in the deep; 26. in journeyings often, in perils of waters, in perils of robbers, in perils by mine own countrymen, in perils by the heathen, in perils in the city, in perils in the wilderness, in perils in the sea, in perils among false brethren; 27. in weariness and painfulness, in watchings often, in hunger and thirst, in fastings often, in cold and nakedness. 28. Besides those things that (/) are without, that which cometh (/) upon me daily, the care of all the churches. 29. Who (w) is weak, and I am not weak? who is offended, and I burn not? 30. If I must needs glory, I will glory of the things which concern mine (x') infirmities. 31. The God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, which (t/) is blessed for

knoweth that I lie

(r) v. 24. "Forty stripes save one," a Jewish punishment. They were prohibited, by Deut. xxv. 3. from exceeding forty stripes: and their habit was to use a scourge with three ends, so as to give three blows at one stroke; and then they never exceeded thirteen strokes, which inflicted thirty-nine stripes.

(*) v. 25. "With rods j" a Roman, not a Jewish punishment.

(I) v. 28. "That are without, Ac." i. e. «* external sufferings, such as he had stated," "that which cometh, Ac." i. e. "inward "anxiety for the care of all the churches."

(u) v. 29. "Who is weak, Ac." Accommodating himself in innocent points to the tempers and feelings of others, to win them over, and keep them; as he says, "1 Cor. ix. 22. To the weak became I « as weak, that I might gain the weak. I "am made all things to all men, that I "might by all means save some."

(x) v. 30. "Infirmities," i e. (perhaps) "-^firings."

evermore, not.

The Gospel. Luke viii. 4.

When much people were gathered together, and were come to him out of every city, he spake by a parable: 5." A sower went "out to sow his seed: and as he "sowed, some fell by the way"side; and it was trodden down, "and the fowls of the air de"voured it. 6. And some fell "upon a rock; and as soon as "it was sprung up, it withered "away, because it lacked mois"ture. 7. And some fell among "thorns; and the thoms sprang "up with it, and choked it "8. And other fell on good "ground, and sprang up, and "bare fruit an hundreu-fold." And when he had said these things, he cried, "He that hath "ears to hear, let him hear." 9. And his disciples asked him, saying, "What might this parable "be?" 10. And he said, "Unto "(z) you it is given to know the

(y) v. 3. «' Which," i. e. "the Father."

This is evident in the original, "o&tifxal •ea-ryp Ts Kvpls $pS» 'lt)<ra Xpij-» oiSw, i £r

(z) v. 10. "Unto you it is given, Ac." The reason the disciples had this privilege, and others not, may be collected from the parallel passage in Matt. xiii. 12. Ac. viz. because the disciples, from following him, had shewn an anxious desire after the truth, and others, notwithstanding his miracles, had shewn no such disposition. In St. Matthew he add*, "whosoever hath, to him shall be given, "and he shall have more abundance; but « whosoever hath not, from him shall be "taken away even that he hath;" and the meaning is, that the properly inclined shall have opportunities others shall not; as he also says, John xv. 2. "Every branch that "beareth fruit, my Father purgeth it, that "it may bring forth more fruit."

"mysteries of the kingdom of God: "but to others in (a) parables; "that seeing they might (b) not "see, and hearing they might "not understand. 11. Now the "parable is this: The seed is the "word of God. 12. Those by "the way-side are they that hear; "then cometh the devil, and "taketh away the word out of "their hearts, lest they should "believe and be saved. 13. They "on the rock are they, which, "when they hear, receive the "word with joy; and these have "no root, which for a while be"lieve, and in time of temptation "fall away. 14. And that which "fell among thorns are they "which, when they have heard, "go forth, and are choked with "cares and riches and pleasures "ofthis life, and bring no fruit "to perfection. 15. But that

"on the good ground are they, "which, in an honest and "good heart, having heard the "word, keep it, and bring forth "fruit with patience."

Quinquagesima Sunday, or the Sunday next before Lent.

The Collect. O Lord, who hast taught us that all our doings without charity are nothing worth; Send thy Holy Ghost, and pour into our hearts that most excellent gift of charity, the very bond of peace, and of all virtues, without which whosoever liveth is counted dead before thee. Grant this for thine only Son Jesus Christ's sake. Amen.

The Epistle. 1 Cor. xiii. 1.

Though I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, and have not (c) charity, I am become as

(«) B. 10. " In parables." Mr. Locke has pointed out with great effect in his Reasonableness of Christianity, the prudence and caution of our Saviour in forbearing to challenge to himself, till towards the conclusion of his ministry, the character of the Messiah, lest he should provoke the jealousy of the Roman power, or draw after himself such a concourse of people as might obstruct the progress of his ministry. Part of this prudence and caution consisted in his speaking in parables; and in Mr. L.'s Letter to Mr. Bold (Preface to 2d Vindication, x. xi.) he says, "The "necessity and wisdom of our Saviour's "opening the doctrine he came to publish, "as he did, in parables and figurative 'ways of speaking, carries such a thread "of evidence through the whole history "of the Evangelists, as, I think, is im"possible to be resisted; and makes it a "demonstration, that the sacred historians "did not write by concert, as advocates 1 for a bad cause, or to give colour and credit to an imposture they would usher into the world, since they, every one of them, in gome place or other, omit some passages of our Saviour's life or circum

"stances of his actions, which shew the "wisdom and wariness of his conduct, and "which even those of the evangelists "who have recorded them do barely and "transiently mention, without laying any "stress on them, or making the least re"mark of what consequence they are to "give us our Saviour's true character, and "to prove the truth of their history. These "are evidences of truth and sincerity, "which result alone from the nature of "things, and cannot be produced by any "art or contrivance."

(6) "Might not see, &c." That if they had not right dispositions, if they were not inclined to search after truth, and exert their talents to find it, they should not have such overpowering evidence as should force them to believe. St. Matthew only states, " that seeing, they "see not; and hearing, they hear not, "neither do they understand." And StLuke, though he used a different form of speech, might state as the motive, what he meant to describe as the conseouence only. See ante, 49. note on Matt. h. 15.

(c) v.l. "Charity," i.e. "complete "good will to man." St. Paul's object in G

(tf) sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal. 2. And though I have the gift of prophecy, and understand all mysteries, and all knowledge; and though I have all faith, so that I could remove mountains (e), and have not charity, I am nothing. 3. And though I (g) bestow all my goods to feed the poor, and though I give my body to be burned, and have not charity, it profiteth me nothing. 4. Charity sufFereth long, and is kind; charity envieth not; charity vaunteth not itself, is not puffed up, 5. doth not "behave itself unseemly (A), seeketh (*) not her own, is not easily provoked, thinketh (k) no evil; 6.

rejoiceth not in iniquity, but rejoiceth in the truth; 7. beareth (/) all things, believeth (m) all things, hopeth (m) all things, endureth all things. 8. Charity never (n) faileth: but whether there be prophecies, they shall (o) fail; whether there be tongues, they shall cease; whether there be knowledge, it shall vanish away. 9. For we (p) know in part, and we prophesy in part; 10. but when that which is perfect is come, then that which is in part shall be done away. 11. When (y) I was a child, I spake as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child; but when I became a man, I put away

this chapter is to shew, that such good will for God's sake, upon a principle of duty, is better than all those gifts conferred by the Spirit, of which he had been writing in the preceding chapter.

(d) "Sounding brass, &c." i. e. "all my "pretensions and qualities are vain and "empty."

(e) v. 2. "Could remove mountains." St. Paul was perhaps aware of our Saviour's declaration, Mark xi. 28. "Whosoever "shall say unto this mountain, 'Be thou "'removed, and be thou cast into the sea,' "and shall not doubt in his heart, but shall "believe that those things which he saith "shall come to pass, he shall have what"soever he saith." See Matt. xxi. 22.

(g) v. 3. "Bestow, &c." So that the word "charity," as here used, extends far beyond '«almsgiving."

\h) v. 5. "Unseemly," i. e. "scornfully, "contemptuously."

(i) " Seeketh not her own," i. e. "ex"clusively, or to the prejudice of others; "is not so intent upon its own private ad"vantages, as to disregard the rights and "wants and convenience of others." In 1 Cor. x. 33. he instances in himself, that he "seeks not his own profit, but the pro"fit of many, that they may be saved." In Philip]), ii. 21. he complains, that "all "seek their own, not the things which are "Jesus Christ's;" and in 1 Cor. x. 24. he cautions them, " Let no man seek his otvn, "but every man another's wealth."

(k) "Thinketh," i. e. "meditateth, or

"imputeth to others. Puts a kind con"struction on their words and actions."

(/) D. 7. " Beareth," or "concealeth."

(m) "Believeth, &c. hopeth, &c." i. e. "believeth and hopeth whatever can be "believed or hoped in a man's favour.''

(») i). 8. "Never faileth," i.e. "will "always have scope; will never become "useless; will continue even in the world "to come."

(o) " Shall fail;" not that any thing foretold under God's inspiration should fail of coming to pass; but that the time should come when the gifts of prophesying, of tongues, (that is, of speaking different languages,) should be no longer useful; when that time should be, is explained by what follows, when that which is perfect should be come, when we should know even as we are known, i. e. (probably "in the life to come."

{p) v. 9. "We know in part, &c." i. e "at present our knowledge is limited "one knowing more than another, an( "none having perfect knowledge; am "therefore the gifts of prophesying, &c "are at present distinctions; but th "time shall be when all shall haveperfec "knowledge, when we shall all know 8 '• much as these gifts could conimuiiic.it "and then they will be wholly useless, t "no value."

(y) v. 11. "When, &c." This illustrate what preceded; "as persons when a< "vanced to manhood disregard as of r "value what they learnt as mere childrei

childish things. 12. For now we see through a (r) glass, darkly; but then (s) face to face: now I know in part; but then shall I bow even as also I am known. U. And now abideth faith, hope, charity, these three; but the greatest of these is charity.

The Gospel. Luke xviii. 31.

Then Jesus took unto him the twelve, and said unto them, "Be"hold (/), we go up to Jerusa

"so when perfect knowledge in all things "is attained by all, particular steps only u leading towards that perfect knowledge "rill be in no estimation."

(r) ». 12. " A glass," not the transparent substance we have, but what was then

km.

(j) "Face to face," i. e. "as clearly as '■ one man can see another who is close to "him." So 2 Cor. iii. 18. in contrasting the light under the Gospel, beyond that under the Mosaic dispensation, when Moses put a veil before his face, St. Paul Bys, "we all, with open face, beholding as "in a glass the glory of the Lord, are "changed, &c." So St. John, in speaking of the perfect knowledge he expected afterwards, says, "toe shall see him as he is. "Uohniii.2." A similar expression occurs, Itaiah lii. 8. "They shall see eye to eye, 'when the Lord shall bring again Sion."

(t) v. 31. '* Behold, &c." This conversion is also mentioned by St. Matthew, n. 17. and by St. Mark, x. 32. St. Mark's Gospel is generally supposed to have been overlooked by St. Peter: St. Matthew's account, therefore, is from one who was present, who must have known whether such a conversation occurred, and St. Mark's account may be considered as sanctioned by another ear-witness; and if after the resurrection and their subsequent intercourse with our Saviour, and receiving the gift of the Holy Ghost, they could have wanted any thing to confirm their kith, the recollection of this prophetic communication was at least likely to have had that effect. St. John details a very long conversation at the last supper, in which our Saviour speaks repeatedly of his approaching death. See John xiii. to x»ii. and post.

(») " Written." Many passages in the Old Testament imply that the Messiah

"lem, and all things that are («) "written by the prophets con"cerning (x) the Son of man "shall be accomplished. 32. "For he shall be delivered unto ««the (y) Gentiles, and shall be "mocked,andspitefullyentreated, "and spitted on: 33. and they "shall scourge him, and put him "to death: and the (z) third "day he shall rise again." 34. And they (a) understood none of

was to suffer. See particularly Psalm xxii. 7, 8. 17, 18. —Isaiah liii.

(x) "Concerning, &c." or "shall be "accomplished upon the Son of man."

reXeaSria-tTeu rZ i,S, &C.

(y) t>.S2. "The Gentiles." Pilate, to whom he was delivered, and from whom the order came for his crucifixion, was a Roman Governor, not a Jew, and the Romans were among those whom the Jews called "Gentiles." The Jews had not, at the time of our Saviour's crucifixion, the power of awarding capital punishment. In the language of Jacob's Prophecy (Gen. xlix. 10.) "The sceptre "had now departed from Judah, and a "lawgiver from between his feet:" and yet they did not draw the conclusion, that Shiloh, he that was to be sent, was probably come.

(z) v. 33. "The third day, &c." A decisive test for trying his pretensions, one an impostor never would have offered.

(a) v. 34. "Understood none, &c." It is probable the apostles were not yet aware that the Messiah's was to be merely a spiritual kingdom; and they might expect, as the Jews did, that it was to be temporal. In Matt. xvi. 21, 22. when our Saviour began to shew unto his disciples that he should suffer many things, and be killed, Peter said unto him, "Be it far "from thee, Lord, this shall not be unto "thee." According to Matt. xrii. 22. when he gave them the same intimation, " they "were exceeding sorry." When our Saviour charged Peter, James, and John to tell no man what they had seen at the transfiguration till the Son of man were risen from the dead, "they questioned "one with another what the rising from "the dead should mean. Mark ix. 10." Mary Magdalen and the women who went with her to embalm our Saviour's body

these things: and this saying was hid from them, neither knew they the things which were spoken. 35. And it came to pass, that as he was come nigh unto Jericho, a certain blind man sat by the way side begging: 36. and hearing the multitude pass by, he asked what it meant 37. And they told him that Jesus of Nazareth passeth by. 38. And he cried, saying, "Jesus, thou (V) son of "David, have mercy on me." 39. And they which went before rebuked him, that he should hold his peace: but he cried so much the more, "Thou son of David, "have mercy on me." 40. And Jesus stood, and commanded him to be brought unto him: and when he was come near, he asked him, 41. saying, "What wilt "thou that I shall do unto thee?" And he said, "Lord, that I may "receive my sight." 42. And Jesus said unto him, "Receive

"(c) thy sight: thy (c?) faith "hath saved thee." 43. And immediately he (e) received his sight, and followed him, glorifying God: and all the people, when they saw it, gave praise unto God.

The First Day Of Lent,

called Ash- Wednesday.

The Collect.

Almighty and everlasting God, who hatest nothing that thou hast made, and dost forgive the sins of all them that are penitent; Create and make" in us new and contrite hearts, that we worthily lamenting our sins, and acknowledging our wretchedness, may obtain of thee, the God of all mercy, perfect remission and forgiveness, through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

[This Collect it to be read every day in Lett, after the Collect appointed/or the day.]

the third day after his crucifixion, could not have understood that he was to rise on that day, for if they had, they would not have gone to embalm him. See post, — note on Luke xxiv. 45. and post, — note on John xvi. 6. Even after the resurrection they asked our Saviour, "Lord, ■" wilt thou at this time restore the king"dom unto Israel?" Acts i. 6. post, —

(b) v. 38. '« Thou son of David." This •was the same as calling him the Messiah: when our Saviour asked the Jews whose son the Christ was to be, they immediately answered, " David's." Matt. xxii. 42.

(c) v.42. " Receive, &c." Not praying to God to restore it, but acting as of himself; and this, when applied to by the divine title "Lord" (Kv'pie), and for relief which nothing but divine power could confer: — An indirect proof of his divinity!

(d) "Faith," i. e. "confidence in my "power."

(e) v. 43. "Received his sight." The nature of our Saviour's miracles, and the publicity with which they were performed,

deserve observation. They were in general works of mercy, (such as removing bodily infirmities,) and in that respect corresponded with what had been foretold of the time3 of the Messiah, Isaiah xxxv. 5. "then the eyes of the blind shall be "opened, and the ears of the deaf shall be "unstopped." They were shadows or types of his power and disposition as to our souls. His readiness to relieve the body from what he intimates (Luke xiii. 16.) "are the bonds of Satan," viz. diseases and corporal defects, would to the Jews, to whom types and figures were particularly familiar, imply a like readiness to relieve their souls from his bondage. They were also done in a public manner, in the sight of multitudes, and in many instances upon persons who had been known for years to labour under the infirmity which he removed. St. Mark calls the person on whom this miracle was performed, " blind Bartimaeus," as if he were a known character.

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