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CHRONOLOGY OF THE BARDS, AND POETS.
Flourished about A. D.
Evan Drwch y Daran, a Poet,
1570 mentioned by Cynddelw; Cathlau clau Cerddau Rhậs Cain, a Herald Bard, Caw. (He was brother to Aneurin; see a note Davydd Benwyn, Prydydd o Vorganwg, 1586 in page 17.)
Capt. William Middleton, a Poet,
1590 Gwyddelyn, Gwyddyl Gôr, or Eiddilig Gôr, William Salisbury, of Cae Dû, in Llana noted Bard, and magician to Rhuddlwm fannan, was very learned; he translated the Gawr, about the year
460 New Testament into Welsh; published an Teilo, or Teilaw, a Bard, and the 2nd Bishop English and Welsh Dictionary, in the year of Landaff, (Teilaw ab Enfych, or Enllaig, måb 1547 ; and a Grammatical Introduction to the Hudwn dwn,) about the year
520 British, or Welsh Tongue, in the year 1567 Ugnach ab Mydno, of Caer Sëon, near Con Arthur Kelton, Historian, way, a celebrated Bard, about 540. See vol. II. p. 16. Dr. David Powel, of Rhiwabon, Historian, 1550 Yscolan, a Bard, about
570 Humfrey Llwyd, of Denbighshire, D. M. Gwrnerth, a Bard, about 610 and Wellh Historian,
1550 Affer, a famous writer, bishop of St. David's Dr. John Dû, or Dee, of Nant-y-Groes, and afterwards, of Salisbury 879 Radnorshire, a famous Astronomer,
1570 Melgin, or Maelgyn, wrote a book, “ De Sir Jn. Price, of Llanvyllin, British Historian, 1573 Arthurii Mensa Rotunda.”
John Owen, of Plàs Dû, in Caernarvonshire, Gwgan Brydydd, a Bard, about 1090 the famous Epigrammatist,
1600 Gruffydd ab Gwrgeneu, a Bard,
Robin Iachwr, a Herald Bard,
1610 Gwyddvarch Gyvarwydd, a Bard,
1206 James Howel, of Brin-Llangammarch, near Einion ab Madawg ab Rahawd 1250 Brecknock, Historiographer,
1620 Gwilym Ryvel, a Bard, and a warrior 1260
Lord Herbert, of Cherbury, in MontgomeElidyr Sais, a Poet,
1290 ryshire, the famous knight-errant, and Histor. 1624 Hywel Voel ab Griffri ab Pwyll gwyddel, 1300 Hugh Llwyd, of Cynvael, a Poet, of MeiCasnodyn Vardd,
1320 rionethshire, about 1620. See p. 78. Iorweth Beli, a Bard,
Robert Vaughan, Esq. of Hengwrt, in MeiLlŷwelyn Ddû ab y Bastard, a Poet, 1370 rionethshire, Antiquarian, and Historian, 1660 Gruffydd Grŷg, a Poet,
Nicholas Lloyd, of Flintshire, wrote DictionaDr. Siôn Cent, or Gwent; a divine and a Bard, 1390 rium Historicum,
1660 Llywelyn Llogell, a Poet,
1400 John Gwilym, of Herefordshire, a Herald, Elor Gôch, a Poet,
1450 and Rouge Croix pursuivant; he published his Robert Leiaf, a Herald Bard, 1460 celebrated work, entitled, “The Display of
1610 Davydd ab Edmund, a Poet,
1460 Heraldry,” in folio, about Rhys Nanmor, a Poet, near St. David's,
Myles Davies, of Tre 'r abbat, in Flintshire, 1460
wrote Athena Britannica, or Critical History Davydd Nan’mor, a Poet, of Nanhwynan, of the Oxford and Cambridge Writers, about 1690 in Meirionydd,
1460 Dr. John Davies, Canon of St. Asaph, (was Lewis Dwyn, a Poet,
the son of a weaver at Llanvetres, in DenbighTudor Penllyn, a Merionethshire Poet,
shire ;) he was a famous linguist, and author of 1460
Antiqua Lingua Britannica, a Welsh and Latin, leuan ab Tudyr Penllyn, a Son, ditto, 1480 and Latin and Wellh, Dictionary ; which he
Tudor Aled, a Poet, who lived at Garth. published in the year 1632. He aflisted also Gerin, in Chwiban, near Llansannan, 1490 in translating the Bible into Welsh, which was Llywelyn ab Gyttyn, a Poet, and Crythwr
correctly published in the year
Edmund Pròs, of Trawsvynydd, or Tyddyn Davydd Llwyd ab Llywelyn ab Gruffydd, 1480 Dů, Rector of Ffestiniog and Maentwrog, and Inco Brydydd, a Poet,
1480 Archdeacon of Meirionydd; was interred under Meredydd ab Davydd Vychan, a Poet, 1490 the Communion-table at Maentwrog, in the Davydd Gorlech, a Poet,
year 1623. He was the most celebrated Bard
1500 Evan Dyvi, a Meirionyddshire Poet,
of his time, and one of the translators of the
1500 Bible into Welsh, and versifier of the Psalms. Rhýs Brychan, a Poet, 1500 John Phylip, of Llan-Enddwyn,
1590 Rhậs Gele, y Prydydd Brîth.
William Phylip, of Llan-ddwywe, Merioneth. 1663 Richd. Davis, Bard, and Bishop of St. Asaph, 1560
Rowland Vychan, of Llanuwchllyn, MerionTr. ab Gr. ab H. y Gadair, of Anglesey, 1580
1668 Bedw Havhesp, a Poet, about
Hugh Cadwaladr, of Llanuwchlyn, 1667
1590 Rhỹs Gôch, a Lyn Dyvrdwy, a Poet,
Siôn Davydd, Lâs, of Penllyn, Bard to the 1540 | Nannau Family,
1691 For the list of succeeding Bards, I refer my readers to the end of Dr. Davies's Dictionary, and to Mr. Ed. Llwyd's Archæolo.p.255
The musical instruments, anciently used in Wales, are as different from those of other nations as their mufic and poetry', -These instruments are fix in number, the Telyn, or harp; the Crwth; the Pibgorn, or Horn-pipe”; the Pibau-côd, or Pib-braich ; that is, the Bag-pipes, or the arm-pipes: the Tabwrdd, Tabret, or Drum; and the Corn.buelin Cornet, or Bugle-horn. Of these an accurate representation is attempted in the opposite trophy.
The Harp, the principal of those I have enumerated, which appears to be the most ancient, and indeed the queen of all musical instruments, derives its origin from the remotest period: The Seventy ?, as well as Josephus “, have rendered Kinnor to be the same as the Harp: and we find, in facred history', that Jubal, the seventh from Adam, is styled, The Father of all such as handle the Kinnor, (or Harp,) and the Hugab, (or ancient Organ,) which were before the flood; and the origin of any invention cannot well be carried higher.
Job, who lived among the Idumeans, about 1520 years before Christ, does not only speak of music and singing, but also gives us the names of the musical instruments then in use'. Ezekiel’ and Isaiah & reprefent Tyre as a city wholly given up to music. The antiquity of music appears also from the history of Jacob; who, having stole away from his uncle Laban without acquainting him of his design, was pursued and overtaken by him on the mount of Gilead, where he upbraided him for what he had done, in this manner, Wherefore didst thou
flec away fo fecretly, and steal away from me ? and didst not tell me, that I might bave sent thee away with mirth and with songs, with Tabret, and with Harp'?
It will be necessary to observe, that the musical instruments of the Greeks, and Latins came to them from the Hebrews. The Greeks, a vain glorious boasting people, pretended that the greatest part of their musical instruments were the invention of their gods, or their ancient poets. They feldom represented Mercury, Apollo, Orpheus, Arion, or Pan, without some musical instrument in their hands : but this false
pretension of theirs is sufficiently contradicted by the Holy Scriptures themselves, Religion, the gods, music, or poetry, owe not their origin to Greece, but are the growth of a far more distant soil". The Latins are more fincere and ingenuous; they acknowledge they received their musical instruments from the East. Juvenal says,
Jam pridem Syrus in Tyberim defluxit Orontes,
Obliquas, nec non gentilia tympana fecum vexit". It is very extraordinary, that all authors who have treated on this subject, have not discerned that the Harp, and the Grecian Lyra were two diftin&t instruments; and it is evident, that neither the Greeks, nor the Romans ever had our Harp, nor is it to be found on their coins, nor sculptures.' Another proof may be educed from Venantius Fortunatus, (the bishop of Poictiers, about A. D. 609,) who says, that both the Harp, and the Cruth, were inftruments of the Barbarians, or Britons.
Romanusque Lyra", plaudat tibi, Barbarus *3 Harpa,
Venantius Fortunatus, Lib. 7, Carm. 8.
See Venanlius Fortunatus, lib. 7. carm. 8.
“ Thou God of Wit (from Atlas sprung) * The dances which are called hornpipes, probably derive
" Who by persuasive power of tongue, their name originally on account of their being played upon
“And graceful exercife, refin’d the Horn-pipe.
" The favage race of human kind; 3 Psalms, XLIII. v.4; XCII. v.3; XXX. v. 2, 3; CXLIV.
“ Hail, winged messenger of Jove, v. 9.
“ And all th' immortal powers above, Josephus's Antiquities of the Jews, book VIII. chap. III. 8.
“ Sweet parent of the bending lyre, s Genefis, chap. iv. verse 21, And Ecclefiafticus, chap.
“ Thy praise shall all its founds inspire, &c. XLIV, v. 1, 5:
• They send forth their little ones like a fock, and their « O Mercury, (fince the ingenious Amphion moved rocks by children dance. They take the timbrel and harp, and rejoice“ his voice, you being his tutor,) and thou, my Testudo, expert at the sound of the organ. Job XXI. verse 11, and 12. “ to resound with seven strings, formerly neither vocal nor 1 Ezekiel, chap. XXVI. verse 13.
“ pleasing, but now agreeable to the tables of the wealthy, and * Take an harp, go about the city, thou harlot that haft the temples of the Gods," &c.-Horace, book III. ode been forgotten; make sweet melody, fing many fongs, that 11.thou mayest be remembered. Ifaiah, chap. XXIl. verfe 16. Mercury is called the parent of the lyre, because having 9 Genesis, XXXI. verse 27.
found the shell of a tortoife, and fitted ftrings to it, he firit 10 Ecclefafticus, chap. 44 ; and in the account of Seth, and formed an idea of that kind of music. Hence testudo fignified Enos, &c.
a lyre, by reafon that it was originally made of the black or Juvenal, satire III.
hollow shell of the teslude aquatica, or sea-tortoise which Mer. * In Horace's Hymn to Mercury, book I. ode the 10th. The cury found on the banks of the Nile. origin of the lyre is said to be as follows:
OF THE MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS OF THE HEBREWS, &c.
The antiquity of poetry is another argument for that of music; as they are both supposed to be coeval with man. Nature furnishes art with all her materials, and lays the foundations of all her improvements. As Poetry and Music were inseparable among the ancients ', who knew no poet that was not at the same time a musician, and who called making verse singing, and verses fongs.
What has been said of poetry, may likewise be applied to music. There is a natural music which preceded, and gave birth to the artificial: both tend to the same end, namely, to express the sentiments of the poet in such sounds and terms, as have a correspondence to what he feels within himself, and would inspire others with.
David, the second King of Israel, was the greatest' master of the Harp of his time, as well as a poet ; he composed a great number of the psalms, or hymns, both for voices and instruments; which he instituted in the tabernacle of the Lord, to inspire men's hearts, and to enliven their affections towards God”. (This accomplished prince, may truly be called a priest, prophet, and Bard.) The prophet (Elisha, likewise, thought mufie necessary to excite him to a fit disposition, for receiving the impression of the spirit of God
; and said, • but now bring me à Minstrel; and it came to pass, when the Minitrel played, that the hand of tbe Lord came upon him 3.
We have every reason to believe that music was in a high degree of perfection among the Hebrews to. wards the latter part of David's reign, and in the time of King Solomon, &c; and, we are informed that Asaph, Heman, and “jeduthuń, were the princes, or presidents, of all the temple-music, in those reigns, Asaph had four sons, Jeduthun six, and Heman fourteen. These four and twenty Levites, sons to the three grand presidents of the music, were set over four and twenty bands, or companies of musicians. Each of them had under him eleven officers of an inferior rank, who presided over the other fingers, and instructed them in their art. These several companies seem to have been distinguished from one another, by the instruments on which they played “, and by their places in the temple. Those of the family of Kohath stood in the middle; those of Merari, on the left; and those of Gersoon, on the right hands. The sons of Jeduthun played on the Kinnor, or Harp; the fons of Afaph, on the Nebel, or Psaltery ; and the sons of Heman on the Metfilothaim, a kind of tinkling bells, or Cymbals " The number of them, with their brethren that were
In ode 32, Horace invokes his lyre, and calls it Barbiton. (of what size foever it be, having fix strings ; and the violin, « We are now called upon. If, in idle amusement in the shade whether it be the treble, the tenor, the violoncello, orthe bass, “ with you, we have played any thing that may live for this having uniformly four. In short, all the instruments of that
year and many; come on, aslift me with a lyric ode in genus are characterized by the appellation of the Cithara, “ Latin, my dear Barbiton,-first tuned in Greck by the Lef- whether a lute, a guitar, a viol, a fiddle, or a kit. “ bian citizen Alceus *,' &c.
The English make use of a similar loose and vulgar term, * Alceus was the contemporary, countryman, and friend, of Sappho. Horace when they want to express any musical instrument which they says, in book 11. Ode 13, that Alcaus played with the golden pleetrum, (an in- do not well know the name, by che term hurdy gurdy ; which ftrument with which they Aruck the Atrings of the lyre.). Likewise, probably in fact is, an old English instrument that consists of a bladder the instrument called peftis, or peeten, is so termed, from its being played with upon a stick, with a string or two stretched across the bladder, a fick, or a quill.
which are fastened to each end of the stick, and played upon Virgil describes Dido's feast to Æneas, Lib. I. 0. 744, &c. withhe rebecik is a three-fringed fidele. The cithern has fix In which, the fame intrument is termed Cithara. "The Arings : also, a mandolin, or a small guitar played with a quill, “ long-haired lopas founded on the gilded Cithara what great is sometimes called a cittern. The lute is efteemed to be a very
Ailas had taught ; he sang of the changing moon, and the ancient instrument, as being mentioned in Psalm lxxxi. &c.it « course of the sun; the origin of mankind and other anis mals ; the nature of the elements, the heavenly constella- The theorba, or arch-lute, sometimes called cithara bijuga, from
originally had six strings, but now has a much greater number. « tions, and the causes which operate the change of seasons,” its having two necks, with a great number of strings: the -Homer calls the instrument, on which
Achilles played, the Spanib lule, and the guitar, are called cithara Hispanica. The Phorminx, which implies the same as Teltudo. Iliad, book IX.- Tute is always ftrung with gut, and played upon with the fin
The Greeks call the Lyra; Kithara ; Barbitos ; Phormins ; gers. The orpharian, bandore, or guitar, are generally Arung with and Chélys t. T'he Romans have made use of the fame terms, wire, and mostly played with a quill
. (Salinas afferts, that the to which they have added Teftudo ; all of which imply a tor- instruments of the above class take the name of lute, from their toise, a shell, or an instrument made of that form. (The back halieutic, or boat-like form.) Thecrwth; the fiddle; viol d'amour; of the late and the guitâr are frequently carved in that Shape): viol de gamba ; the bariton ; &c. are all played with a bow.' The lyra of Mercury had at first but three strings ; Orpheus is
Cæfar, in his Commentaries, book IV. chap. 22, &c. calls the faid to have added a fourth ; and Pindar mentions his lyre as
Britons, barbarians; and Tacitus the same. The appellation having seven. It is evident from Maccabees, that the kinnor, of barbarians was given by the Greeks to all the world but or harp, and the cithara, or guitar, are not the same, since they themselves; the Romans gaveit to all the
world but the Greeks. are mentioned in the same as two different instruments. I. T." A note from Mr. Beloe's translation of Herodotus. Maccabees IV. v. 54 ; and XIII. v.51.- Notwithstanding all the accounts, given by the Greeks and Romans, it is not im- ftudies ; Lord Herbert, of Cherbury, on the Religion of the Gen
Timagenus says, that music was the most ancient of all probable but tħe cithara, or guitar, is derived from the Cithern tiles page 204. Plutarch, Libello de Muficâ. Quintil. Lib. I. of the Hebrews ; (which according to Mercennus, is a kind of fiddle with fix itrings). See also Maccabees, as before quoted,
· 1 of Chronicles, chap. XXV. v. 6 and 7.-II. Chronicles, -Galilie uses the term lyre for the lute, and other instruments of that class : but the true diftinction between the viol and the chap. XXIX. chap. V. v. 12.-Of the dresses of the Levites, violin fpecies arises from the difference of size, and the number &c. fee Exodus, chap. XXVIII. chap. XXXIX. and
Isaiah. of their strings, respectively, the viol, meaning that for concerts, chap. 111. I. Chronicles, chap. XXIII. v. 5. & 8.
3 II. Book of Kings, chap. III. v. 15. + Pliny mentions a filh called Gir băra or a folie. And another called phorcks!
* I. Chronicles, XXV. 1, 3, 5, 6, II. Chron, chap. V. v. 12. Pliny, XXXII, and 11,
I. Chronicles VI, 33, 34, 39.
or 10, I.