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the works of him that sent me, while it is day; the night cometh, when no man can work." But this is speaking merely in the language of the Old Testament writers.
"VII. Of CORRUPTION and DESTRUCTION," i. e, before Christ's coming.
"Job, iv. 18, 19, 20. He put no trust in his servants,—how much less in them that dwell in houses of clay; whose foundation is in the dust; which are crushed before the moth? They are destroyed from morning to evening; they are perished for ever. xxvi, 6. Hell is naked before him, and destruction bath no covering, xxviii. 22. Destruction and death say, we have heard the fame thereof. Ps. xvi. 10.—thou-wilt not suffer thine Holy One to see corruption. xlix. 9. That he should still live for ever, and not see corruption,-12.-man being in honour abideth not.-14 like sheep they are laid in the grave, death shall feed on them,-their beauty shall consume in the grave from their dwelling;-19, He (Heb. His soul) shall go to the generation of his fathers ; they shall never see see light.-20. Man that is in honour and understandeth not, is like the beasts that perish. lxxxviii. 11. Shall thy loving kindness be declared in the grave? or thy faithfulness in destruction, (vid. Clericum, qui recte deducit Rephaim, Mortuos, a rapha deficit, desiit.) Add Prov. xv. 1; xxvii. 20; Acts, xiii. 36, David was laid unto his fathers, and saw corruption. 1 Cor. xv. 18. Then they also that are failen asleep in Christ, are perished. Vid. Hullet Dis. vol. 1. p, 313, &c. Comp, 2 Pet. ii, 1."
So far the bishop. I will not answer for the relativeness of all the passages to the subject, His first section of them which represents death as a SLEEP, and his third, which represents it as a REST, I have left out, as what is predicated of death in those respects by the Old Testament writers is also predicated of it by those of the New Testament. With regard to death's being a sleep however, the New Testament writers it may be supposed, fell into the language of the Old Testament writers from mere habit, without ever designing to fall into their sense, as other passages shew, particularly 1 Thes. v. 9, 10, below. And it is to this retaining of old phrases when they have lost their original import, it is, that we do not see the original force of them. By this the proof which might be derived from the Old Testament writers representing death as a state of suspended consciousness, a SLEEP, is materially weakened, if not entirely destroyed, with some persons.
I shall now give the passages that represent immortal life as a new gift to the souls of the good, and as brought about by and after Christ's coming, through his infusing into them his life-preserving Holy Spirit.
John, v. 24. He that heareth my word and believeth on him that sent me, hath everlasting life.—is passed from death unto life.-vi. 40, Every one which seeth the Son, and believeth on him, may have everlasting life, AND I will raise him up at the last day. vi. 27, Labour not for the meat which perisheth, but for that neat which endureth unto everlasting life, which the Son of man shall give unto you. vi. 54, Whoso eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, hath eternal life; AND I will raise him up at the last day. 57, 58, As the living Father hath sent me, and I live by the Father; so he that eateth me,
even he shall live by me, not as your fathers did eat manna, and are dead: he that eateth of this bread shall live for ever. 63, It is the Spirit that quickeneth; the flesh profiteth nothing: the words that I speak unto you they are spirit and they are life; [i. e. they regard spirit or mind, and life or soul, and not flesh or body.] viii. 51, 52, If a man keep my saying, he shall never see death. Then said the Jews unto him, Now we know that thou hast a devil. Abraham is dead, and the prophets, and thou sayest it a man keep my saying he shall never taste of death. [The Jews mistook him, he alluded to life and mind, in which he had before said the fathers were dead, vi. 58, above.] xi. 26, Whosoever liveth and believeth in me, shall never die. xii. 25, He that loveth his life (soul) shall lose it; and he that hateth his life (soul) in this world, shall keep it unto life eternal. xvii. 2, Thou hast given him power over all flesh, that he should give eternal life to as many as thou hast given him. Matth. xvi. 25, 27, 28, Whosoever will save his life shall lose it: and whosoever will lose his life for my sake shall find it.-The Son of man shall come in the glory of his Father, with his angels, and then he shall reward every man according to his works. There be some standing here which shall not taste of death till they see the Son of man coming in his kingdom. John, iv. 14, Whosoever drinketh of the water that I shall give him shall never thirst; but the water that I shall give him shall be in him a well of water springing up into everlasting life. vii. 38, 39, He that believeth on me-out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water. But this spoke he of the Spirit, which they that believe on him should receive for the Holy Spirit was not yet. Gal. vi. 8, He that soweth to his flesh, shall of the flesh reap corruption; but he that Soweth to the Spirit, shall of the Spirit reap life everlasting. 1 Pet. i. 22, 23, Seeing ye have purified your souls-through the Spirit-being born again not of corruptible seed but of incorruptible, by the word of God, which liveth and abideth for ever. 2 Cor. i. 22, Who hath sealed us, and given the earnest of the Spirit in our hearts. Eph. i, 13, 14, In whom (Christ) also, after that ye believed ye were sealed with the Holy Spirit of promise, which is the earnest of our inheritance, until the redemption of the purchased possession. iv. 30, Grieve not the Holy Spirit, whereby ye are sealed unto the day of redemption. Rom. viii, 10, 11, If Christ be in you the body is dead, because of sin; but the Spirit is life, because of righteousness, But if the Spirit of him that raised up Jesus from the dead dwell in you, he that raised up Christ from the dead shall also quicken your mortal bodies by his Spirit that dwelleth in you, [rather, by his Spirit's dwelling in you, viz. by which your souls are to be preserved till the day of the redemption of the body.] Rom. v. 21, That as sin hath reigned unto death, even so might grace reign, through righteousness, unto eternal life, by Jesus Christ our Lord. 2 Tim, i. 10, 12, Who hath abolished death and brought life and immortality to light through the gospel-for I know whom I have believed, and am persuaded that he is able to keep that which I have committed unto him against that day. Rom. vi. 22, 23, Being made free from sin-ye have your fruit unto holiness, and the end everlasting life. For the wages of sin is death; but the gift of God is eternal life, through Jesus Christ our Lord. 1 John, iii. 15.
Whosoever hateth his brother is a murderer; and ye know that no murderer hath eternal life abiding in him, 2 Pet. ii. 12, These, as natural brute beasts, made to be taken and destroyed-shall utterly perish in their own corruption. 1 John, v. 11, 12, God hath given us eternal life, and this life is in his Son, He that hath the Son hath life; and he that hath not the Son of God, hath not life, ii, 25, This is the promise that he hath promised us, even eternal life. Heb, xi, 13, These all died in faith (the fathers) not having received the promises, but having seen them afar off, [see John, vi. 57, 58; viii, 31, 52, above.] 39, 40, These all having obtained a good report through faith, received not the promise: God having provided some better thing for us, that they, without us, should not be made perfect, [receive the accomplishment.] Heb viii, 19, The law made nothing perfect, but the bringing in of a better hope did. viii. 6, A better covenant, which was established on better promises, 1 Pet. i, 5, 9, 10, 12, [We] are kept by the power of God through faith unto salvation, ready to be revealed in the last time-the salvation of our souls. Of which salvation the prophets have inquired-to whom it was revealed, that not unto themselves, but unto us they did minister the things which are now reported unto you, 1 Thess. v. 9,10, God hath not appointed us to wrath, but to obtain salvation by our Lord Jesus Christ, who died for us; that whether we wake or sleep, we should live together with him, 2 Cor. v. 6, 8, 9, Therefore we are always confident, knowing that whilst we are at home in the body, we are absent from the Lord, and willing rather to be absent from the body, and to be present with the Lord. Wherefore we labour, that, whether present or absent, we may be accepted of him, Rom, xiv. 7, 8, 9, For none of us liveth to himself, and no man dieth to himself. For whether we live, we live unto the Lord; and whether we die, we die unto the Lord : whether we live therefore, or die, we are the Lord's. For to this end Christ both died and rose, and revived, that he might be Lord both of the dead and living. Phil, i. 21-24, For to me to live is Christ; and to die is gain. Yet what I shall choose I wot not. For I am in a straight betwixt two, having a desire to depart, and to be with Christ; which is far better; nevertheless, to abide in the flesh is more needful for you. See also St, John, Vid, 11. Dig. i. Sect. II. which upon second consideration according to p. xi. I would rather refer to the intermediate state of the departed good, and to their millennial and post-millennial state. Also Vis, III. Pt, II, Sect, I. Also Vis, IV. Pt. 1, Sect. II, Also Vis. II. Pt. II. Sect. 1. v. 8, 9, 10. Where the dead do praise the Lord contrary to their silent state before the first advent of Christ.
I now give the passages which relate to the really "strange notion," that when Christ came, he brought extinct souls into existence again, that they might live in a separate state till the resurrection. These are very few, because they have very little to do with us in our present state, but sufficient to establish "the theory of prophecy and of religion as connected with prophecy." 1 Pet. iii, 18, 19,-By the Spirit - he (Christ) went and preached unto the spirits in prison [extinct]; which sometime [once] were disobedient, when once the long-suffering of God waited in the days of Noah. iv. 5, 6,-the Gentiles-shall give
account to him that is ready to judge quick and dead. For, for this cause was the gospel preached ALSO to them that are dead, [i. e, not dead in trespasses and sins; for the gospel was always preached to them, but dead naturally.] that they might be judged according to men, in the flesh, [in flesh, i. e. in body like men, at the day of judgment and resurrection,] but live, according to God, in the spirit [in spirit, i. e, in a separate state as God does, till the resurrection.] John, v. 25, Verily, verily, I say unto you, the hour is coming and now is when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God; and they that hear shall live. For as the Father hath life in himself, so hath he given the Son to have life in himself. xi, 25, 26, I am the resurrection and the life: he that believeth in me though he were [be] dead, yet shall he live and whosoever liveth and believeth in me shall never die. Believest thou this? Heb, xi, 39, 40, [The fathers] received not the promise that they without us should not be made perfect. John, vi. 58, 63, Not as your fathers did eat manna, and are dead he that eateth of this bread shall live for ever-the words that I speak unto you they are spirit, [they regard the mind] and they are life, [they regard the soul, "the flesh or body, "profiteth nothing."]viii, 51, 52, If a man keep my saying, he shall never see death, Then said the Jews unto him, Now we know that thou hast a devil. Abraham is dead and the prophets; and thou sayest if a man keep my saying, he shall never taste of death. 2 Tim. i. 10, 12, Our Saviour Jesus Christ who hath abolished death, and brought life and immortality to light through the gospel-is able to keep that which I have committed unto him against that day. 1 John, ii. 25, This is the promise that he hath promised us, even eternal life.
From a comparison of the above passages, the conclusion is unavoidable. The fathers "received not the promise of eternal life, but they were dead" before Christ's time, because they only who "kept his saying," should "never see death," should "live for ever," i, e. as our Lord himself explains it, with regard to mind and soul only, at first. The gospel, therefore, was preached to the "dead, that they might live, as God does," in separate
spirit;" which they had not before done, "that they without us (Christians) should not be made perfect ""For (in the same manner) as the Father hath life in himself." by existing in spirit or an incorporeal state, so (in that manner) hath he given to the Son to have life in himself," by imparting that incorporeal life to his followers, "the last Adam" being made a quickening spirit," (1 Cor. xv. 45,) by which he went to preach to spirits imprisoned, "to bring them that sit in darkness (extinguished) out of the prison-house (to life again)," Is. xlii. 7: so that they who saw the promises afar off, but received them not, though they were dead yet should they live," at Christ's call, just in the same manner as, we may presume, those believers who were already alive should never die, viz, in spirit at first,
The Hulsean has elsewhere exposed his ignorance, where he says, "We have been the more anxious to distinguish between what is implied as truth, and what is acknowledged to be fiction, because it has been lately asserted that nothing but the scope can prove any thing, for the rest may be fiction" -an unfair treatment which this parable (meaning that of the rich man in
torments) has met with from a writer of our own University, who is disposed to deny the eternity of future punishments." Now what the Hulsean and the Doctor maintain has only been lately asserted by me, has been asserted by many others long ago. I need only refer the incomparable pair to their A B C book, Horne's excellent Introduction to the Study of the Holy Scriptures, under article Interpretation of Parables, who teaches that For the right explanation and application of parables, their general scope and design must be ascertained—that we ought not to expect too curious an adaptation of a parable in every part to the spiritual meaning inculcated by it; for MANY circumstances are introduced into parables which are MERELY ORNAMENTAL, AND DESIGNED TO MAKE THE SIMILITUDE MORE PLEASING AND INTERESTING-and that the scope is to he learnt from the clear declaration prefixed to the parable, or the declaration subjoined to it, or from the subjectmatter, context, or occasion of its delivery. And what is this but saying, that nothing but the scope can prove any thing for the rest may be fiction?" So that the Hulsean and the Doctor will see, that I have been quite orthodox in interpreting the parable alluded to, merely by the scope derived from the declaration subjoined to it. See p. 206.
But the Hulsean must be very little acquainted with himself and others, who think that I am the only one," who is disposed to deny the eternity of future punishments," (and here he should have said torments, for I do not deny the eternity of punishments,) of those who, at the same time, sincerely believe the Scriptures. He should have known that honesty and sense are very seldom met together; that those who have had sense enough to see the truth, have very seldom had honesty enough to profess it openly: a remarkable instance of which disingenuousness may be observed in Bishop Law's Theory of Religion. "When we lost sight of the original obvious meaning of the word death, (says he) as implying a cessation of a natural life, or being a real dissolution and destruction of the whole man; to make something of his sentence, adequate, as we imagine, to the solemnity with which it was denounced, we were obliged to turn this into a moral death, or vicious degradation of his noblest part the soul; an inherent principle of corruption, derived in the grossest sense, ex traduce, whereby even little children (whom our benevolent Lord blesses, and whose amiable innocence he proposes as a proper temper for all the members of his kingdom, Mark, x. 14, 16.) become objects of God's wrath, and liable to eternal torments, for no other fault except that of being born in unhappy circumstances. It may likewise merit our consideration, whether our keeping in view the proper sense of the first death denounced in general to the race of Adum, may not direct us to the true import of that second death, which is threatened to all hardened and incorrigible sinners, after some temporal punishment, (Matt. xi. 24; Luke, xii. 47,) to be inflicted everlastingly in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone. Rev. xxi. 8; or as our blessed Saviour has repeatedly expressed the same thing, in hell, and the fire that never shall be quenched. Mark, ix. 43, 46, 48. Where it is remarkable, that he adheres invariably to the last words of Isaiah describing the fate of all such adversaries to God, upon their final overthrow; and which perhaps may be tolerably understood by the annexed inter