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were 15,000 citizens supported by charity. If each individual should have an annual allowance of 50 dollars, the whole expense of the 15,000 would be 750,000 dollars. This, allowing the above salaries, would support 750 ministers, and 1500 teachers. Allow. ing cach pauper 100 dollars, the whole expense of the poor would be 1,500,000 dollars; which would support 1500 ministers, and 3000 teachers. Allowing a Bible to cost 75 cents, and tracts to cost at the rate of 1 cent for every ten pages, it would purchase 1,875,000 Bibles, and 1,500,000,000 pages of tracts, for charitable distribution. The annual expense of the alms-house is about 80,000 dollars. This would annually build four churches, at 20,000 dollars each, or eight at 10,000 dollars each. Allowing a minister 1000 dollars, it would support 80 ministers of the Gospel. In the seven ward there are betwee 2 and 300 persons licensed sell ardent spirits by the small quantity: we will suppose there are 220. Supposing each one to sell every day to the amount of two dollars and fifty cents, the ardent spirits annually sold, in the seventh ward, will amount to 200,750 dollars. This would employ, in that ward, 200 ministers, or 400 teachers. It would annually build 20 decent churches, purchase 267,666 Bibles, and 200,750,000 pages of tracts. All the ardent spirits sold in the city would, at this rate, build annually 135 churches, support 1358 ministers, 2716 teachers; purchase 1,811,616 Bibles, or 1,358,712,500 pages of tracts. No one will doubt that such a number of faithful ministers or teachers employed — such a number of churches built — such a number of Bibles or tracts distributed, would produce a great change in the moral state of the city. But, intemperance is but

We must take into the account idleness, gambling, profligacy, and other vices, which consume property; and which would be removed, were the people enlightened, industrious, and moral.

“ It is an opinion, which has been formed and confirmed by the observation of facts, that Christians have erred with respect to the subject of charity. The great object seems to have been to relieve existing distress, instead of preventing it. But we never can make our fellow-men happy, till the cause of their sufferings is removed. If we would make the fruit good, we must make the tree good. If we can make a profligate man sober and industrious, we more effectually provide for his family, than we should by bestowing thousands of gold and silver." Let there be a great effort to change the moral character of mankind, to remove the cause of their sufferings; let them be supplied with those means of reforma. tion and salvation, which God has appointed; let the proper inAuence of the Gospel be exerted, and if prisons, and hospitals, and alms-honses, do not cease to exist, their dimensions will be small, their inhabitants few.

ss As another motive to these exertions, we mention,

“ 4. The interests of the church. That field at which we have glanced is of great extent; it is covered with thorns and briers; it

one vice.

has hitherto brought forth the grapes of Sodom, and the clusters of Gomorrah. Is it not for the interests of the church that it should be cultivated; that the seeds of grace should be sown; that trees of righteousness should spring up, and bear fruit; that it should become as Eden? Is it not important that, in the midst of these 70 or 80,000 souls, 70 or 80 temples to the living God should rise; 70 or 80 new congregations and churches be formed; that, to those already employed, 60 or 70 faithful ministers of the Gospel should be added? It is not, however, the salvation of the present generation merely which is concerned, but that of thousands of their posterity. Should the population increase in the same proportion for 20 years to come, as it did between 1800 and 1810, the increase alone will be 136,000; and will require, therefore, 136 additional churches, that there may be one church to a thousand. If we suppose that 60 churches are now wanting, there must be erected, within 20 years, 196 churches; that there may be, in this city, one church to a thousand souls. But our cities have an extensive influence on the surrounding country. We have already stated, that they afford a place of resort for those who wish to live without restraint. It is not uncommon for those who have lived in the city to return into the country, carrying with them vices, which taint the morals of a whole neighbourhood. There are some towns where the inhabitants have been corrupted by their intercourse with some of our large cities, in such a manner as to make it evident to all who are acquainted with them. Young persons frequently come to this city, and are destroyed by their exposure to temptation. It is notorious, that there are certain villages, not far distant, which supply a considerable number of victims to that vice, which has caused the heart of inany a parent to bleed. Cities exert an influence on the people of the country, who are not so immediately connected with them. The single subject of fashions will show tlie correctness of this remark. In things of greater consequence, cities are looked up to as examples, and give character to the country. How immensely important that they should be free from ignorance, error, and immorality! that they should set an example of holiness, and of every good work!

As we advance, however, the subject rises in importance. We must extend our views beyond the limits of the city, and of our own country. The subject is peculiarly important, on account of its connexion with the great missionary cause. Among the obstacles which have hitherto prevented the universal spread of the Gospel, we find that the prejudices which the heathen entertain against it hold a conspicuous place. The number of heathen who visit our cities is not large. A few, however, are sufficient to bear evil tidings to millions of their countrymen. A few months since, a vessel came to this port from Calcutta, which was manned by more than 40 of the natives of Hindoostan - a part of the world where missionaries are now stationed. Some, and perhaps all of


them, had heard of Christianity; had been informed, that it was
the best religion in the world ; that it made inen good and happy.
What did they witness ?—they fell in company with the vilest class
of people — they were conducted to haunts of vice, even on the
Sabbath — they engaged, with those whom they supposed to be
Christians, in the most abominable wickedness - they probably did
not see an act of religious worship rendered to the true God, or
hear the name of Jesus, except from the lips of the profane.
Judging, as the heathen do, of a religion from the effects which
they wituess, with what views of Christianity must they have
retired from our shores? When they mingle with their countrymen,
what intelligence will they communicate? What will they exhibit
as the fruits of the land of promise ? Is it not morally certain
that they, as well as their countrymen, will regard our missionaries
as impostors ? that their prejudices against Christianity, and in
favour of idolatry, will be strengthened and confirined?
contrary, suppose this city had been, at that time, a city of right-

that all with whom they associated had been pious, or even moral — that they had witnessed the genuine effects of the Gospel -- with what different impressions and tidings would they have returned to their own country? If they had not loved, they would have respected Christians — if they had not embraced, they would have reverenced the religion of Christ. Could our missionaries appeal to some of the heathen, to testify to the blessed effects of the Gospel, with what increased force could they exhibit its claims on their belief, their love, and their obedience! Pagans from other parts of the world visit our cities -- witness similar scenes, and return, doubtless, with similar impressions and intelligence.

“Our cities have an intimate connexion with the heathen, by means of our seamen. At present they are a barrier to the spread of the Gospel; a screen which intercepts the rays of the Sun of righteousness. When they visit pagan countries, as thousands of them do every year, they not only join in all the wickedness of the heathen, but teach them new vices. To their superior cunning the heathen become an easy prey, and are not unfrequently robbed of their property, their children, and friends. Sailors sometimes take up their abode in pagan countries, that they may acquire wealth, and be free from the restraints of the Gospel

. A part of the crew of the ship, which transported the first missionaries to the South Sea Islands, settled there; and are supposed to bave been the principal reason why their efforts were, for so long a time, attended with no more success. “ Several gentlemen, who have visited the Sandwich Islands, and some, who have for a time resided there, are of opinion, that opposition from wicked English and American settlers, and the prejudices which they have excited, would constitute the principal obstacle in the way of introducing Christianity among the natives. It is owing, in a great measure, to the same



cause, that the efforts to christianize the Aborigines of our own country have proved so ineffectual. Let our seamen and others, who visit the heathen, become pious; and instead of contradicting the glad tidings which our missionaries publish — instead of destroying the effect of their labours, they will become a powerful weapon in their hands. It is through the medium of Christian example, that the heathen discern the light of the Gospel. The influence of our seamen is not unknown to the men of the world. A master of a vessel which recently arrived, and which had visited one of our missionary stations, triumphantly observed, that his sailors could, in a few days, undo all the work of our missionaries. Though we do not believe this representation to be strictly correct, it is not without meaning. Let our sailors continue vicious, and wherever Christians send one missionary, Satan will send a hundred oppose

his efforts. Should our seamen become pious, not only would a great obstacle be removed, but the number of hands employed, and the amount of labour performed in the great mis-' sionary field, would be augmented. Should a crew land on a heathen shore, all pious – all deeply concerned for the salvation of their pagan brethren-all anxious to tell them of that Saviour, who is the only hope of lost men to impart to them those treasures of knowledge and grace which they had received, how would the darkness retire before them!

“ That property, of which our seamen earn and receive no small quantity, and which is now squandered away, would, doubtless, be consecrated to the spread of the Gospel. No men are so liberal; none whose hearts and hands are so easily opened — none who have such a strong fellow-feeling none who are less careful to preserve their lives.

Were all consecrated to God, what sacrifices would they not make-what hardships would they not endure – to what dangers would they not expose themselves, for the salvation of their fellow-men? While, in consequence of actually witnessing the wretched state of the heathen, they would feel more deeply interested than other Christians — they would communicate the same feeling to their brethren — they would become heralds, publishing glad tidings in every direction. Every vessel which arrived would add new fuel to the flame, and canse that flame to spread from our cities into the surrounding country. Who does not see, that thousands, and tens of thousands, of pious men constantly passing and repassing throughout the world; mingling now with Christians, now with the heathen, would give a new, and powerful, and lasting, impulse to that great machine, which is to diffuse abroad the blessings of the Gospel? They form the connecting link between the Christian and the heathen world — the channel through which the water of life must flow — the medium through which the light of the Gospel must shine.

“ Cities are necessarily the centre of all the great operations for the salvation of the heathen the main spring of the mighty

machine — the heart of the world. If the main spring be disordered, the whole machine is affected -- if the heart's blood be corrupted, the whole system is enfeebled. It is from our cities also, that most of the property which is to accomplish the great work must be derived; and may we not hope, that from the destitute some will be qualified, and sent to preach the Gospel? It was this attention to the destitute which, with the blessing of God, sent Buchanan to the ends of the earth. While these exertions will increase a missionary spirit, they will unite the hearts of Christians and ministers. Not only will seafaring men, and others, who pass from one port to another, associate with Christians of different denominations; but, in such a work, Christians who constantly reside in the same place must come in contact — must see each other's faces - must speak often one to another.' This will destroy those narrow, contracted views, which compress the church of God into a sect, and mar its beauty; it will break down the walls of separation, and cause the church to look forth fair • as the morning, and terrible as an army with banners.' Every Christian feels that it would be desirable that all this should be accomplished; of its practicability some may doubt. We will, therefore, endeavour to show,

“5. That our efforts will be sụccessful. From the facts which have been stated, it will be seen that there are thousands of people here of the same character, and, as it respects spiritual things, in the same condition with those on our frontiers. Will it be said, that these discover greater hardness of heart, because they might enjoy the blessings of the Gospel were they disposed? This is precisely the case with the destitute in other parts of the country. It is not on account of their poverty, or any other natural difficulty, that they are thus destitute. In a country not far from this, there are thousands in this situation, and yet the people are comparatively wealthy; and, had they been disposed, might long since have enjoyed all the blessings of the Gospel. It is not poverty, it is not any natural, but a moral obstruction, which has kept so great a part of the world, for so many centuries, ignorant of the Saviour. The awful stupidity and depravity of the human heart, form the mountain, the cavern, the gulf, which have prevented the heralds of the cross from running to and fro through the earth. we adopt the sentiment, that we are under no obligation, and that it will be of no use to supply with the ordinances of the Gospel those who are not disposed to supply themselves, we ought to remand the missionaries who are scattered throughout the destitute parts of our country. We have the same reasons for believing that success will attend missionary efforts in the city, as we have that it will attend them in the country: we have more, we have advantages which are peculiar. That missionaries may labour with permanent success in remote parts of the country, many things are necessary; which it will require much time, and trouble, and property, to


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