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"The loss of money, however, be it ever so great, cannot compare with the cruel waste of life occasioned by sending our soldiers to those pestilential regions, whose very atmosphere is, in many cases, death to the uninured whites, and certain loss of health to all. In 1826, of the eighty-three regiments then in the British service, twenty were placed in the West Indies. While twenty regiments were required for the West Indies, nine were deemed sufficient for Britain. The secretary at war is understood to have said, that out of three regiments, consisting of 2,700 men, sent to one of the islands, one-third had perished in one season!"
Who can compute the amount of loss, guilt, and folly, inseparable from West India Slavery!
PAUL PREACHING AT ATHENS.
On that proud classic, favour'd shore;
All who their country's battles won;
And those who fell at Marathon;
Whose praise has through the nations rung: Demosthenes here charm'd the heart,
And Phidias wrought, and Homer sung. Who on those steps excels them all? "Tis he-the Christian teacher - PAUL! 'Tis he! the servant of that Lord,
Whom Grecian sages never knew;
And teach them to believe and do.
Which ever signaliz'd his name,
Eager to hear what he might teach;
Whose hearts those glorious truths could reach. In mental darkness long they lay,
But now has dawn'd a brighter day.
Here stands the Cynic, deep in thought,
Two Jewish doctors may be trac'd,
Whom their own prophets had foretold, And whom their eyes did once behold, Teaching within that hallow'd dome, Which still remain'd their dearest trust; And, harder than the marble stone,
They from His veins beheld to burst The gushing blood on Calvary's hill: They felt not then, they scorn Him still. But not in vain that tongue must teach With eloquence sublime and rare, And now a risen Saviour preach,
And show his love and inercy there:
And hands uplifted here behold;
Singular Sign of Mourning.-The Landers, recent travellers through Africa, mention an extraordinary custom which they witnessed. Many women with little wooden figures of children on their heads, passed us in the course of the morning-mothers, who, having lost a child, carry such rude imitations of them about their persons for an indefinite time as a symbol of mourning. None of them could be induced to part with one of these little affectionate memorials."
The African Butter Tree. - The Mi-Cadania, or butter tree, yields abundance of a kind of vegetable marrow, pleasant to the taste, and highly esteemed by the natives. It is used for lights, and other domestic purposes. The tree is not much unlike our oak in appearance, and the kernel of its nut is about the size of our chestnut. It is exposed in the sun to dry; after which it is pounded very small, and boiled in water: the oily particles it contains float on the surface; when cool they are skimmed off, and made into little cakes for use, without any further preparation.
A Map of the Voyages and Travels of St. Paul, for Schools and Bible Classes, intended as a Companion to the Map of Palestine, on a whole Sheet of large Vellum Imperial.
Also a new and corrected edition of the Map of Palestine in the time of our Saviour, illustrative of the Books of the Evangelists, and containing the principal places in the Old Testament, ANNIVERSARIES OF RELIGIOUS AND BENEVOLENT SOCIETIES, IN THE ENSUING WEEK.
SUNDAY, 19.-Irish Society of London, Sermon, Portman Chapel, Baker Street.
TUESDAY.-British and Foreign Temperance Society, Exeter Hall, at Twelve. Society for the Promotion of Permanent and Universal Peace, White Hart Court, Gracechurch Street, Halfpast Six Ev.
WEDNESDAY.-Continental Society, Sermon, St. Ann's Blackfriars, at Eleven.
THURSDAY.-Episcopal Church Society, Exet. Hall, at Twelve. London; Printed and Published by C. WOOD AND SON, Poppin's Court, Fleet Street; to whom all Communications for the Editor (post paid) should be addressed; and sold by all Booksellers and Newsmen in the United Kingdom.
HISTORY OF THE ROMISH "HOLY
"POPE INNOCENT THE THIRD," as Gibbon remarks, "may boast of the two most signal triumphs over sense and humanity, the establishment of TRANSUBSTANTIATION, and the origin of the INQUISITION."
Humanity shudders while reflecting upon the diabolical cruelties and murders perpetrated by this most terrible "Court;" for the whole history of human wickedness, embracing every nation, does not present any system of policy to be compared with it for injustice, atrocity, or hypocrisy. That which peculiarly aggravates the criminality and blood-guiltiness of that Scourge of Christendom is, that its proceedings were always conducted by ministers of religion, and in the blessed name of HIM, who is the "Prince of Peace," the fundamental law of whose kingdom, enjoined upon all his servants, is, "Whatsoever ye would that men should do unto you, do ye so even unto them."
This fearful Tribunal of the Inquisition was erected by the Pope, about A. D. 1200, in several Roman Catholic countries, for the examination and punishment of heretics, the papal chair being then filled by Innocent III. The immediate object of the Inquisition was the extermination of the WALDENSES, who, under VOL. II.
several denominations, continued marvellously to increase in France, Spain, Germany, and even in Italy. The principles and general character of the Waldenses, are brought before us in an interesting and satisfactory manner. We have extant some of their own "Apologies" and "Confessions of Faith," which are truly excellent. Besides, Reinerius Saccho, who had been brought up among them, and was therefore acquainted with their principles and character, was appointed legate and inquisitor, for the purpose of extirpating them. Though an apostate from them, and one of their determined enemies, he testifies as follows: "Of all the sects that have risen up against the church of Rome, the Waldenses have been the most prejudicial and pernicious. They live righteously before men, believe rightly concerning God in every particular, holding all the articles contained in the creed (Apostles' Creed), but hating and reviling the church of Rome, and on this subject they are readily believed by the people." We cannot but believe that such a people, concerning whom an enemy would so write, were living by faith on the Son of God, and enjoying the comforts of the Holy Spirit. Especially when we reflect that it was their glory that there was scarcely one among them who was not better acquainted with the Scriptures than the doctors of the Romish church.
However sound and scriptural their principles, and pure and exemplary their morals, the Waldenses could not escape persecution. By methods which required more than depraved human ingenuity to devise, the inquisitors and their officers procceded in their bloody work, and the beginning of the thirteenth century was distinguished by thousands of the Waldenses being put to death, by hanging, burning, and various other dreadful tortures. Under the denomination of Waldenses and Albigenses, in France alone, it was computed, that by the direction of the papal legates and inquisitors, not less than a million were murdered, in several barbarous crusades! while their only crime was that of being dissenters from the popish domination and superstitions, separating to enjoy the gospel of Jesus Christ, and to live together as his obedient disciples!
The princes under whom these dissenters lived, afforded them protection on account of their habits of good order and their industry: but as they rejected the impositions of popery, and admitted only the Scriptures as their rule of faith and duty, by order of the papal court, armies were raised to exterminate them as heretics, and several of the nobles fell with their people, being treated with every species of perfidy, injustice, and brutality, by their bigoted invaders. As these crusading legions were marching, a turbulent inquisitorial monk was murdered in the dominions of Raymond, Count of Thoulouse; and this served as a pretext for Pope Innocent III, to publish an edict, a part of which is as follows: "We moreover promise to all those who shall take up arms to revenge the said murder, the pardon and remission of all their sins. And since we are not to keep faith with those who do not keep it with God, we would have all to understand, that every person who is bound to the said Earl Raymond by oath of allegiance, or by any other way, is absolved by apostolical authority from such obligations; and it is lawful for any Roman Catholic" to persecute the said Earl, and to seize upon his country. We exhort you, that you would endeavour to destroy the wicked heresy of the Albigenses; and do this with more rigour than you would towards the Saracens themselves; persecute them with a strong hand; deprive them of their lands and possessions; banish them, and put Roman Catholics in their room."
Such were the shocking sentiments and language of one who called himself the chief minister and vicar of Jesus Christ! The orders of the Pope were executed without delay; and in such a manner, that a detail of the accompanying acts of hypocrisy and treachery, of indecency and savageness, would harrow up the sensibilities of the most unfeeling soul. Hundreds at a time were butchered in the most terrible manner. Noblemen and governors, who attempted to defend the innocent inhabitants of the Waldensian cities, were anathematized, and the people indiscriminately massacred! Writers of the greatest veracity declare, that "the armies employed by Pope Innocent III destroyed two hundred thousand of them, in the short space of a few months."
St. Dominic has the honour of first erecting this extraordinary "Court of Inquisition;" and the two orders of St. Dominic and St. Francis were at this time instituted. The first inquisitors were vested with a double capacity, not very happily united in the same persons; one was that of preachers, to convince the heretics by argument; the other, that of persecutors, to instigate magistrates to employ every method of extirpating those who were not convinced by the reasoning of the merciless fanatics and wretched sophisters. At first indeed the inquisitors had no tribunals: they merely inquired after heretics, their numbers,
strength, and riches. When they had detected them, they informed the bishops, who at that time had the sole power of judging in ecclesiastical affairs, and whom they urged to anathematize, banish, or otherwise chastise such heretical persons as they brought before them. On some occasions they excited princes to arm their subjects against the heretics; or inflamed the rabble, whom they themselves headed, to take up arms, and unite in extirpating them. Those who could be induced to devote themselves to this service, obtained the title of CRUSADERS, and wore a cross upon their garments. The efforts of the inquisitors were greatly assisted by the emperor of the Romans, Frederick II, who, in 1224, promulgated four edicts of the most ferocious and sanguinary description against heretics. These edicts were approved and confirmed by the pope, and inserted in his bulls; and the persecuting spirit which pervades them became gradually incorporated into the laws of almost every country in Europe.
After the death of Frederick, about the middle of the thirteenth century, Pope Innocent IV remaining sole arbiter of the affairs of Lombardy and other parts of Italy, commenced diligently to extirpate heresy, which he feared was increasing; and as the past labours of the Franciscan and Dominican friars, unrestrained either by respect of persons or the fear of dangers, by any regard to justice or the feelings of humanity, had highly recommended them to the pontiff, he cheerfully availed himself of their services. Preaching was not found to succeed; and the military executions were suspended for the sake of erecting tribunals, armed with tremendous authority, for the purgation of heretical pravity. These noble tribunals were to consist of the inquisitor and the bishop of the place. The inquisitor, however, was to be the principal; and the bishop had little more than the name of judge. The secular powers were indeed allowed to appoint the subordinate officers to the inquisition, but still subject to the approbation of the inquisitor. Of all the confiscated property belonging to the heretics, a third part was granted to the community, in return for the whole expense of keeping the prisons and supporting the prisoners. The infliction of the punishment on those condemned was vested in the magistrate, who could not avoid executing it without incurring the fearful vengeance of the church; so that he was executioner for the spiritual judge.
On this footing the "Holy Office" was placed in the year 1251 in the ecclesiastical states of Italy; and before A. D. 1300 we find it extended to Paris, Thoulouse, Syria, Germany, Austria, Hungary, Poland, Bohemia, &c., under the management of Dominican friars, thirtyone rules or articles defining their jurisdiction and powers, and regulating the procedure of this spiritual court of judicature. All rulers and magistrates were commanded, by a special papal bull, to give, under pain of excommunication, the most punctual obedience and every possible assistance to this "Holy Court."
Under Ferdinand and Isabella, this scourge and disgrace of human nature was established in Spain and Portugal, where tribunals of the Inquisition were erected with all possible pomp and magnificence. Happily for mankind, this infernal Institution has been abolished in many countries, which are yet Roman Catholic, as the greatest outrage upon the dearest rights of man; and the final erasure of the Inquisition from the face of the earth cannot be far distant, together with all the superstitions and errors of Antichrist, by means of the general diffusion of the Holy Scriptures.
(To be continued.)
ON THE DIVINE ATTRIBUTES.
No. IV. THE WISDOM OF GOD.
Does not anatomy testify, that on the frail tenement of
But I must not forget to say something with respect
Now, proud man, where thy greatness fled?
Considerations such as these are eminently calculated to increase our reverence of God; for we cannot fail to be convinced, that He who orders all these wondrous planets, who prescribes rules which none of them can break, yea and calleth them all by their names, must be infinite in wisdom, and all his ways past finding
2. THE PROVIDENCE OF GOD no less displays the attribute now under consideration. It must be owned that there is more obscurity hanging over this subject than any other; and the reason of it I conceive to be, because we are not able to look into both worlds, and collect in one view the present and the future. We are all apt to judge of things by the aspect which they present to our senses; and as I observed when treating on the Justice of God, the condition of men is not now what their moral worth, as compared with each other, requires it should be. Nothing more is needed to establish the necessity of a future state, wherein just judgment may be rendered to the sons of men, than the simple statement of this fact, so well known to all." Oh! it is gratifying, in the midst of a world where injustice abounds on every side,-where the cry of the distressed is drowned in the clamour of the persecutor, and the merit of the worthy is overlooked in the contemplation of splendid and gorgeous iniquity, -it is, I say, gratifying to remember that there is an appeal from earth to heaven, and a judgment-seat yet to be erected, around which shall be gathered the longforgotten generations that have thronged each portion of this globe. The poor and indigent man will at that day discover, that though man has been unmindful of him, God has not: that all his wants and his sufferings are recorded in a book of everlasting remembrance, which will be opened at the last day, and read to assembled worlds. Of the proceedings of that judgment we know and understand but little; nevertheless, enough has been communicated to convey to us the knowledge of every thing connected with it which it is necessary for us to know: and when all the mighty but incomprehensible workings of the Deity shall be fully explained to admiring myriads, I doubt not that each one will be struck with enraptured amazement at the wisdom with which the Deity has conducted all things, and casting at His feet the crowns wherewith he has rewarded their diligence, will be irresistibly urged to exclaim, "Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty; just and true are all thy ways, thou King of Saints!"
But I would most anxiously wish every human being to know, that all his concerns are now under the superintendence of God, who will not fail to make all things work together for good to them who love him. It may seem indeed that trials and sufferings are very doubtful proofs of the care and preservation of the Deity; but let those who suppose this, if they be Christians, seriously ask themselves whether they have not always found, that what appeared dark and gloomy in their condition was absolutely necessary to their eternal welfare? In fact, I cannot suppose it possible, that if men could persuade themselves that God did really interfere with their affairs, they would for one moment doubt the correctness of the conduct pursued. And after so many declarations, both in his word and in his works, that he careth for us- -that though unnumbered worlds demand his attention, he is not unmindful of our griefs and sorrows,-let us not doubt a truth which is alone calculated to cheer the darkness of temptation, and cast a gleam of sunshine over the rugged and desolate paths which lead to the mansions of blessedness. When therefore our cheek is lighted up with a smile, or when our eye is filled with a tear, let us not be unmindful of Him who ordereth all things after the counsel of his own will: and when our heart begins to doubt the mercy or wisdom of God, in some strange dispensation of his providence, let the rising doubt be instantly checked with the Saviour's words, "What I do thou knowest not now, but thou shalt know here. B. Z. after."
(To be continued.)
Letters to a Mother, upon Education.
On learning Geography.
A KNOWLEDGE of the principles of geography is indispensable to your son. This knowledge, in the degree of preparing him for further instruction, you can yourself communicate.
All that you will want will be a globe, or at least a map of the world, tolerably full; that is, having the names of the principal countries and cities marked upon it. You can then begin to teach your juvenile pupil.
As a first lesson, show him an orange, and an ivory ball; and tell him, that the earth on which we all live is not in shape like the ivory ball, perfectly round, but like the orange, flattened at two opposite points, and bulging out rather, all around the two other opposite points.
Now show him a terrestrial globe; and then explain to him the nature of a map,-that it is a drawing in miniature of the outlines of places in their relative sizes and situations.
Go into the garden with him, and choosing some situation whence the whole can be viewed, make a map of it, with the names of the different objects in their places. Let your next lesson be to teach him to make a map of the street in which you live, or the village or neighbourhood, including the principal buildings and other objects. Let this be done on a large scale, and not too many places marked down. Let him put down the boundaries of the different places. Then show him a map of England: point out to him that the different lines include the different counties, or the different portions into which the first kings of England ordered that the whole kingdom should be considered as divided: point out the towns and cities and rivers, and show him the boundaries of each: then point out the boundaries of the whole island, and their names. Then take him to the terrestrial globe, and show him the relative situation of England to the rest of the countries. Tell him that the upper part of the map is called the north, and so of the globe; the lower part the south, the right hand the east, and the left hand the west. Show him how high up towards the north England is: point out to him across the sea the situation of Ireland. Let the next lesson be to show him, that just across the English channel you come to France: show him, still farther on the globe, one country of Europe after another, and the bounds of Europe. Thence proceed to Asia. Direct his attention to the sea extending everywhere, and the islands and countries standing out of it. As to the vacant space around the north pole, tell him that no one has ever been to explore it; so also of the south pole. In another lesson, point out remarkable points, such as the Cape of Good Hope and Cape Horn. Show him Madras, and then ask him to trace with his finger the way by sea to Madras, and then with a pencil the way over-land.
You may then afterwards begin to teach him geography more minutely.
Do this simply by conversation, and on no account ever allow him to commit verbal descriptions of countries to memory. He will loathe the whole study, both now and for ever, if you do.
You may have such a book as Goldsmith's Geography in your hand, and which may suggest to yourself the principal countries and cities, which you may ask him to find on the map. Pursue this plan by little easy, pleasant lessons. Proceed from one thing to another: do not require of him the remembrance of a great number of names; a few principal cities in the different countries is enough. Let him especially learn their
relative positions; and whenever you wish him to tell you where any place is situated, bid him to fancy his map before him, and in imagination to find it on the map. This must always be the rule; and by this method he will, by the laws of the association of ideas, soon surprise you by the facility with which he will reply to your inquiries.
You may then initiate him into the knowledge of longitude and latitude. Teach him that the circle or globe, by common consent of learned men, for the purposes of science, and not owing to any natural property, is divided into 360 degrees, or equal parts; so that a half circle contains 180 of these arbitrary parts, and a quarter 90. Then show him the line round the globe called the equator; and the parallel lines to it: tell him that these are called the lines of latitude: then show him the lines which cross them from pole to pole, and tell him that these are called the lines of longitude. Make him understand that there are no such lines in nature really and to be seen, but that they are agreed upon in order that by being numbered, persons may by the number find out in the map the different countries which lie between the lines, or under them. Instruct him to refer to the different countries, and to bear the association of the longitude or latitude in his mind. Whenever you ask him a question of this nature, or whenever in reading he meets with a country which he wishes to find, let his mind not ramble through the earth, but recur to the map or globe, and to the very spot where he has been accustomed to see it, and the association will suggest it. If he meets with the name of a city, and the country, &c. where it stands is not mentioned, then let him refer to you, and you may refer to the Universal Directory, or System of Geography, and there you will find the country mentioned. Having told this to him, let him recur to it, and search till he finds it. Let him always feel that there is no disgrace in not knowing where a city or town, or even a province is, which he had not heard of before.
These general principles will be enough, as the nucleus of his future knowledge. By looking for places as he needs them in reading, he will know a sufficient number in the course of time.
The general rule however should be, that he should both actually and in memory, whenever he wants to know the situation of a place, refer to the same globe or map.
(To be continued.)
THE EARL OF KINGSTON'S MOTTO, 66 SPES TUTISSIMA CŒLIS." The safest hope is in heaven. Hope, sweetest comfort, steady friend, Who ever dost thy succours lend
Whene'er my mind's opprest:
But ah! on earth I dare not cast
Of Time's rude winds should shake,
And my fond schemes should break.