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PARTICULARS OF THE WILL OF THE LATE
REV. ROWLAND HILL.
EVANGELICAL BIOGRAPHY.-Memoirs of the Rev. Rowland Hill, A. M. Second Edition, with corrections and additions. London, Simpkin and Marshall.
Thousands of those who knew that venerable and apostolic minister of Christ, will certainly purchase this interesting "Memoir," which we take this opportunity of recommending to our readers, as it contains much valuable information concerning the life and death of that lamented philanthropist. Its cheapness will render it adapted to the means of the poorest, and besides its literary worth, it contains a portrait of Mr. Hill, and an internal view of Surrey Chapel. The following particulars of his "Will," may not only be gratifying to our readers, but probably afford them some profitable hints for their practice.
"Mr. Hill refers in his Will to a settlement for his family and his servants; to whom he mentions having disposed the greater part of his estate in his life-time. The particulars of this provision do not of course appear. The bequest of a few articles of plate, &c. however, show the continuance of his esteem to all his family.
"The bulk of his property, which is termed in the Will the residue,' is bequeathed to the Treasurer for the time being of the Society or Institution called The Village Itinerancy, or Evangelical Association for the progress of the Gospel, the Managing Committee of which, from time to time, meet in Old Broad Street, London. Such residue to be appropriated for the pious and benevolent uses and purposes of that Association.'
"The following bequests are very characteristic: "I give and bequeath to the congregation at Mill Street Chapel, Leamington, Warwickshire, two hundred of my Hymn Books in sheets, one hundred of the larger, and one hundred of the smaller editions, for the use of the congregation; to be sold by the Managers for the time being, and the produce arising therefrom to be applied for the benefit of the Redeemer's cause in the said Chapel.
"I also give and bequeath for the use of the congregation at Wotton-Underedge, at the Tabernacle, two hundred of my Hymn Books in sheets; one hundred of the large, and one hundred of the sinall editions; to be sold for the benefit of the Redeemer's cause at Wotton-Underedge.
"To my coachman, Daniel Church, my carriage and horses. If he wishes to part with them, I request he will sell them to those who will use them well.
"To Charles Goring, my silver marrow spoon, sugar shovel, all my mourning rings, seven silver table spoons, four salt spoons, my gold watch and appendages, my 'scrutoire in the parlour at Surrey Chapel, and fifty of each edition of my Hymn Books.
To Susannah Ash, seven table spoons, my metal watch, and my largest chest of drawers in the front bedroom at Wotton-Underedge.'
"These bequests are in addition to a provision for the servants.
"The remainder of the Hymn Books are bequeathed to the Trustees of Surrey Chapel, for the benefit of the Redeemer's cause there.
"The Testator further directs, that the farm at Wotton-Underedge shall be continued; to assist which, he gives his third horse for the use of the farm. bequeath the whole to the Managers of the Tabernacle at Wotton-Underedge, to apply the produce for the use of the said place of worship.'
"The following specific legacies may not be uninteresting.
"To Rev. Theophilus Jones, nineteen guineas for mourning.
"Elisha Newth, reader of Surrey Chapel, his wife and children, nineteen guineas each.
"To his Executors John Broadly Wilson, of Upper Clapham, Esq., Joseph Green, Upper Thames Street, Esq., William James, Wotton-Underedge, and nineteen Samuel Long, Charfield, Gloucestershire; guineas each, and several articles of plate.
"To each of the trustees of Surrey Chapel, he has bequeathed mourning rings of three guineas value.
"Various articles of plate and ornamental furniture are given to relatives and friends; among whom are Lord Hill, Sir Robert Hill, Colonel Clement Hill, and the Rev. Edwin Sydney.
"To the poor women at the Surrey Alms-houses, five pounds for mourning.
The Testator is described as of Wotton-Underedge, Gloucestershire, and of Surrey Chapel, Clerk, and Master of Arts. The property sworn to at the Stamp Office, is under 18,000l. and probate of the will was granted on the 30th day of April, 1833."
ANECDOTE OF THE LATE REV. ROWLAND HILL.
"The following account, by the Rev. John Griffin of Portsea, in his admirable funeral sermon for his venerable friend, will be read with interest.
"Mr. Hill, when I was with him at Bristol Tabernacle, related to me in his pleasant manner a fact, which occurred in his youth between his father, Sir Rowland Hill, his brother Richard, and himself. The father was not pleased with what he considered the irregular conduct of his sons, in descending so low as to preach in the villages and in the fields. One fine summer evening, our deceased friend was preaching by the side of his father's park, at Hawkestone, in Shropshire. His powerful voice, exerted in a zealous degree, was sufficiently strong for the sound occasionally, while he was preaching, to reach the ears of his father, then sitting in his drawing-room, confined by indisposition. He sent a servant to Richard to require his presence, and, on his arrival, he inquired whose voice it was that he heard. It is Rowland, I suppose, Sir, preaching to the people in the neighbourhood.' 'Go, and tell him to come to me immediately,' was the command of the father. Richard obeyed, and went to Rowland, and whispered to him that he must go directly to his father. Rowland said, 'What shall I do with the congregation? I cannot go, unless you come up and finish my discourse.' Richard immediately began to preach, and Rowland went to his father, and received a lecture for his irregular conduct. While receiving this lecture, Sir Rowland said to him, I hear some other person preaching now- -who is that?' 'I suppose it is Richard finishing my sermon, Sir,' said Rowland. Go immediately," said his father, and tell him I command him to come at once to me, and do you come with him.' Rowland immediately obeyed, but when he came to Richard, he had finished the discourse, and dismissed the people. They both went to their father, who severely reprimanded them for so degrading themselves. They both used some affectionate and respectful language to him, and employed some witticisins, and told some risible anecdotes about the grateful expressions of the poor elderly women, which made the father, in spite of his anger and his gout, to smile,-for the Baronet was of course pleased that the people in the neighbourhood of his mansion should be kept in good humour. When his sons perceived that his anger was abated, they bowed and retired and so the matter ended."
CHRIST EXPOUNDING THE LAW.
The voice of God was mighty, when it brake Through the deep stillness of chaotic night, Uttering the potent words, Let there be light! And light was kindled as th' Eternal spake; While hosts seraphic hymn'd the wondrous plan, Which form'd heaven, earth, sun, sea, and crown'd the work with man.
The voice of God was mighty, when it came
From Sinai's summit, wrapp'd in midnight gloom, When ceaseless thunders told the sinner's doom, And answering lightnings flash'd devouring flame; Till prostrate Israel breath'd th' imploring cry,
Veil, Lord, thy terrors; cease thy thunders, or we die!"
The voice of God was mighty, when alone
Elijah stood on Horeb, and the blast
Rent the huge mountains as Jehovah pass'd, And the earth quak'd beneath the Holy One; When ceas'd the storm, the blast, the lightning glareAnd but the "still, small voice" was heard, yet God was there.
Yet not alone in thunder or in storm
The voice of God was mighty, as it came
From the red mountain, or the car of flame :
Lay hush'd-the warring winds obey'd his word;
From his pure lips like mountain honey flow'd, Still as he spake the haughty heart was bow'd, Passion was calm, and malice couch'd in awe. The Scribe, perversely blind, began to see, And mute conviction held the humbled Pharisee. "Man never spake like this man," was their cry; And yet he spake, and yet they heard, in vain; Even as their sires to idols turn'd again, When Sinai's thunders shook no more the sky; So these went back to bend at Mammon's shrine, And heard that voice no more, yet felt it was divine!
THE FIFTH BIRTHDAY VERSES.
BY A FATHER FOR HIS LITTLE BOY.
The rolling months have brought the day
How shall I tread my future way,
I'll ask my Father: he can tell,
My path of life to end it well,
I know he'll say, "The Bible read }
His good advice I'll surely take,
Part I. THE SABBATH. With Four Illustrations on Steel. Part II. THE GARDEN. With Four Illustrations on Steel.
These beautiful little publications contain selections of poetry from our most esteemed anthors. The compilation and arrangement do credit to the editor, and we have no doubt but they will be well received by the public, of whose patronage they are truly worthy. They are admirably adapted for presents for young persons. The Sabbath will be found a treasure in assisting the devotions of the Christian on the Lord's day.
STORMS AND CALMS AT SEA.
"SUNSET this evening was truly a splendid sight: the colours of the sky were more various than any I had ever before observed: the clouds too assumed a form, a tinge, and a magnitude in their masses, that excited the admiration of all on board. No sooner had the sun in a dazzling blaze sunk beneath the sea, than the moon shone forth with a brilliancy quite unusual to us of northern climes. Our ship, with all sail set, was gliding silently over the rippled surface of the ocean, when, in a few minutes, all was changed. The wide expanse of burnished gold which replaced the setting sun faded suddenly away; the moon withdrew her trembling beams; and the clouds, forming into one dense black mantle, overspread the firmament, and enveloped the whole horizon in darkness. A flash of lightning in an instant attracted all eyes towards the cast, just over the barren coast of Africa. The breeze died away to a perfect calm, and the sails hung loosely against the mast. Thunder followed at a distance: scarcely had its awful hollow murmurings ceased, when the winds came sweeping along the deep, sudden as the lightning which accompanied it. Our ship, not unlike a sea-bird fright ened from repose, rushed through the foaming wave, with an unusually tremulous rapidity, at once astonishing and alarming. The seaman's skill was instantly requisite for the prevention of threatened danger. The orders to furl the sails were given and accomplished within a few minutes; and in a short time the squall, accompanied with heavy rain, had passed beyond us. A light breeze succeeded, scarcely sufficient to raise a gentle curl upon the waves; all sail was again set; the moon, surrounded by the resplendent host of heaven, burst with augmented lustre from her concealment, and the overcharged clouds dispersed into various forms, of different shades and hues, leaving the atmosphere around so serene and beautiful as to excite our greater astonishment at the extraordinary suddenness of the change; a circumstance by no means unfrequent between the tropics, sometimes occurring several times in the course of one night."
"If the minister's tongue be like the pen of a ready writer, and the hearers' hearts like oiled paper, the word will make no impression."
"Lo! here is a plurality, a whole chain of blessings. Pardon of sin draws the silver link of grace, and the golden link of glory, after it. You may name it “Gad, WATSON. a troop cometh,"
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JULY 13, 1833.
EPHESUS AND ITS TEMPLE
HAVE been celebrated, not only by the pens of classic authors, but by the writings of inspired apostles "The temple of the great goddess Diana"-"and her magnificence "- "whom all Asia and the world worshippeth"-" and the image which fell down from Jupiter," as mentioned, with many particulars, Acts xix, will, we doubt not, be interesting to our readers,especially as the wicked craft of that system of "abominable idolatry" was subverted by the preaching of the gospel-and as that city was favoured with the ministry of St. Paul during three years (Acts xx, 31). A moral revolution more complete and holy, probably, never took place in any city; and among all the apostolic churches, it seems none were more distinguished for their spiritual attainments and personal virtues as disciples of Christ, than the Ephesian believers. John, the beloved disciple of Christ, passed some of his latter days with the people of God in this city; and died at Ephesus, as is believed, about A. D. 100.
Diana's temple at Ephesus, was reckoned by the ancients as one of the "Seven Wonders of the World." VOL. II.
The former temple was astonishingly magnificent; and Eratostratus, an Ephesian, set it on fire, B. C. 35. The wretched man confessed, when on the rack, that he was induced to perpetrate that crime, by the desire for his name to be carried down to posterity, if by no other means, yet by the commission of that atrocious incendiarism. Eratostratus has secured that infamous notoriety; though the council of Asia made a decree that no inan should mention his name: but his madness or folly was noticed by most historians.
It has been remarked, that on the same night on which this event transpired, Alexander the Great was born. Ambition and vanity were the ruling passions of that scourge of the world; and it is said, that the mighty conqueror of the nations, prompted by his love of fame, offered to build the temple at his own expense, provided the Ephesians would allow his name to be inscribed on its front. The citizens declined the proposal; but fearing to provoke the resentment of that dread prince, they informed him that "it was not proper for one god to build a temple to another." This in a measure satisfied Alexander.
Superstition impelled the idolaters to restore the wondrous fabric, and in a style even more glorious
The pillars and other materials, that had been saved out of the flames, were sold, with the jewels of the Ephesian women, who on that occasion willingly parted with them; and the sum raised by this served to enable them to proceed with the work. Other contributions were forwarded from "all Asia," to an immense amount, so that the new temple was said to have been built at the common charge of all the Grecian States. Cheiromocrates, who superintended the building of Alexandria, and offered to form Mount Athos into a statue of Alexander, was the architect of this edifice for the goddess.
Pliny says, that to secure the foundations of the conduits or sewers, which were to sustain a building of such a prodigious weight, they laid beds of charcoal, well rammed, and upon them others of wood. He says also, that it was four hundred years in the erection by all Asia: others say only two hundred and twenty. It was four hundred and twenty-five feet in length, two hundred feet in breadth, and supported by one hundred and twenty-seven Parian marble pillars, seventy feet high, twenty-seven of which were most curiously carved, and the rest polished. These pillars were the works, it is said, of so many kings, and the bas-reliefs of one were done by Scopas, the most famous sculptor of antiquity; the altar was almost wholly the work of Praxiteles.
This temple of Diana was esteemed so sacred, that it was an asylum for the guilty: at first this privilege extended a furlong, it was afterwards enlarged by Mithridates to a bow-shot, and doubled by Mark Antony, so that it took in part of the city: but Tiberius, the Roman emperor, to put a stop to the many abuses and disorders that attend such privileges, revoked them all, and declared, that no man guilty of any wicked or dishonest action should escape justice, although he might flee even to the altar of the divinity.
"The image which fell down from Jupiter," was a small statue of ebony, carved by one Canitia, though believed by the superstitious to have been sent down from heaven by their god. The extent of the priesteraft which was practised at Ephesus, may be partly estimated by the contents of the nineteenth chapter of the Acts of the Apostles; but language would fail to describe the scenes of iniquity and impurity which were exhibited in that most magnificent monument of idolatrous grandeur. This splendid building is supposed to have been destroyed in the reign of Constantine the Great, pursuant to the edict of that emperor, commanding all the temples of the heathens to be demolished. Of this wonderful structure, there is nothing at present remaining but some ruins, and a few broken pillars, forty feet long and seven in diameter.
Christianity flourished at Ephesus for many years; and the inspired Epistle of Paul remains an invaluable treasure of divine truth for our edification. At the close of the first century, religion had somewhat declined, as intimated by the apostle John, in his letter to the church at Ephesus, Rev. ii, 4, 5: "Nevertheless I have somewhat against thee, because thou hast left thy first love. Remember therefore from whence thou art fallen, and repent, and do the first works; or else I will come unto thee quickly, and will remove thy caudlestick out of his place, except thou repent." Their "candlestick is removed out of its place," and the great city of Ephesus is no more. The remains of its magnificent theatre, Acts xix, 31, which would contain twenty thousand persons conveniently seated, consist only of some heaps of stone and rubbish. "We heard," says Dr. Chandler, "the partridge call in the arena of the theatre and the stadium. The glorious pomp of its heathen worship is no longer remembered; and Christianity, which was here nursed by apostles,
and fostered by general councils, until it increased to fulness of stature, barely lingers on in an existence hardly visible." "I was at Ephesus," says Mr. Arundel, in January 1824; the desolation was then complete a Turk, whose shed we occupied, his Arab servant, and a single Greek, composed the entire population; some Turcomans excepted, whose black tents were pitched among the ruins. The Greek revolution, and the predatory excursions of the Samiotes, in great measure accounted for this total desertion. There is still, however, a village near, probably the same which Chishull and Van Egmont mentioned, having four hundred Greek houses"
We beg our readers to refer to the verses which we have quoted from the letter dictated by the Son of God to John, and sent by him to the Ephesian church, and make their own reflections upon the ruin of this once celebrated city, and the extinction of the knowledge of Christ, which are illustrated by its present condition.
32. ORIGEN. This distinguished confessor of Christ was a native of Alexandria. Leonidas, his father, was a monk of rank and learning: but he was more, he was a Christian, and a martyr for the doctrine of his Redeemer. Origen was born A. D. 185. Leonidas educated his son with pious solicitude, instructing him in the various branches of human learning: but especially, and from a child, he directed his constant studies in the Holy Scriptures. These advantages were improved with diligence, and his progress in the several departments of knowledge, was surprising even to his friends; and his inquisitiveness as to the meaning of passages of Scripture, delighted those who were pious. Origen finished his academical studies under Clemens, at that time the catechist, or professor of Christian theology, at Alexandria. He also attended the lectures of Ammonius, a great philosopher, but of sceptical notions as to religion; and from him Origen became familiarly acquainted with the opinions of Plato, Pythagoras, and the Stoics.
Persecution arising at Alexandria, in its dreadful rage he lost his excellent father, when he was only seventeen years of age. Multitudes fell a sacrifice to pagan malignity; and Origen himself thirsted for the honour of a martyr for Christ. His discreet mother, to prevent the fatal effects of his imprudent zeal, was obliged sometimes to secrete his clothes, that shame might influence him to remain at home. Permission not being granted to him to visit his father in prison before his execution, he sent him a letter worthy of his character. "Father," says he, "faint not, and be not discouraged on our account;" and at the same time encouraging his confidence in the grace and glory of his Saviour.
Leonidas, being beheaded as a criminal, could not bequeath his property to his family his estate was confiscated. But Origen found a friend in an affluent lady of Alexandria; and being enabled to establish a school, by his great abilities, though but a youth, he was enabled to exhibit a noble example of filial piety, by providing for his widowed mother and her other children.
Clemens being driven from his station at Alexandria, by the violence of persecution, Origen, when only eigh teen years of age, was thought the best qualified person to become his successor, as master of the catechetical school, A. D. 203. Thousands attended his lectures, so great was his celebrity; and many, by his instructions, were converted to Christianity; some of whom sealed
its doctrines with their blood. Origen, in many instances, accompanied the martyrs to the place of execution; and it has been regarded as extraordinary, that Divine Providence should have preserved him amidst such frequent and threatening dangers.
Zephyrinus, bishop of Rome, and those under his pastoral care, being celebrated for their piety, Origen made a short visit to the Christians of the imperial city, about A. D. 212, and returned to his scholastic duties, taking Heraclas for an assistant, directing his own attention chiefly to the more advanced pupils. With this relief, Origen applied himself more diligently to the study of the Holy Scriptures, and learned the Hebrew language under Huillus, the Jewish patriarch of Alexandria. Convinced that every branch of learning was advantageous to the Christian, as the means of better understanding the Scriptures, he urged upon all his pupils the value of philosophical and mathematical studies. Heretics and heathens, therefore, flocked to attend his lectures, by which many were converted the faith of Christ. Ambrosius, a nobleman, who had been led away by the errors of Marcion and Valentinus, became reclaimed by this means, and ever after was one of his most powerful friends at Alexandria.
Origen acquired immortal honour by completing, A. D. 214, his celebrated work called "Tetrapla : This was the Old Testament in four Greek translations. By this work, which was arranged in four columns, the reader might see how far there was an agreement between the Septuagint, and the versions of Aquila, Symnachus, and the new one of Theodotion. His fame was extensively spread; and the governor of Arabia sent to Demetrius, bishop of the Christians at Alexandria, and to the prefect of Egypt, desiring that Origen might speedily be sent to instruct him in the doctrine of Christ. Origen went; and having performed the welcome duty, returned to his studies. But the barbarous Caracalla, coming to Alexandria with an army, to revenge himself for some sarcastic expression against him for the murder of his brother, Origen escaped his murderous sword, and withdrew to Cæsarea, in Palestine. Here he opened an academy; but presuming, at the request of the bishops of those parts, to expound the Scriptures, and to preach in the church, he not having been ordained by the bishop of Alexandria, that prelate, Demetrius, was incensed against him, and ordered him to return to Alexandria. The bishops of Palestine apologized to Demetrius, assuring him that Origen had done only that which was customary: but the haughty prelate was not satisfied.
Origen then went to Antioch, at the request of Manca, mother of the emperor Alexander, and a friend to the Christians. She found in his excellent spirit and piety the reason of the veneration cherished for Origen: he soon returned to Egypt.
Commentaries on different parts of the Holy Scriptures now occupied much of the time of Origen, being prompted and encouraged by his generous friend Ambrosius; who not only allowed him a maintenance, but provided him several amanuenses. Demetrius sent Origen, A, D. 228, into Greece, for the purpose of suppressing some heresies, by which the churches were disturbed. Making the circuit of Palestine in his journey, having letters of recommendation from his bishop, and being forty-three years of age, the bishops of Jerusalem and Cæsarea ordained him presbyter. Demetrius was extremely offended with this procedure, as a reflection upon his own authority; and envying the splendour of Origen's reputation, charged him with a matter which had occurred in early life, as a grievous crime, on account of which he had before commended him as one of the greatest examples of exalted virtue. (Matt. xix, 12). "He even assembled a
synod in Egypt, in which he procured his condemnation, and a decree that he should be banished from Alexandria.
Origen, thus an exile, devoted himself still to his beloved work of diffusing scriptural knowledge, and laboured to perfect an edition of the Old Testament from the several translations. He now composed his
Hexapla," ," in six versions. This contained the Hebrew text in one column, in Hebrew letters, and the same in Greek letters in another column, together with the four columns of his " Tetraplu." To this great work he afterwards made an addition of two other versions, one which he found at Jericho, and another found by one of his pupils at Nicopolis: this was called " Octapla."
Such were some of the labours of this extraordinary man; and from this account, our less learned readers will perceive an example of the care and talents which have been employed in preserving and circulating the Holy Scriptures. St. Jerome, of the next century, by whom the Latin version of the Bible was made, which is the standard of the Roman Catholic church, and who was esteemed the greatest biblical scholar of that age, was used to say of Origen, that he "could be well con tent to endure all the load of envy that was heaped upon him, provided he possessed the same acquaintance with the Divine oracles."
Origen was almost worn out with labours and cares, when the emperor Decius assumed the purple. Persecution raged under this tyrant, and Origen suffered dreadfully. Eusebius refers to his letters for a relation of his troubles; and says, "The devil with all his forces enviously setting himself against this man, and fighting against him with all his subtilty and power, assailing him particularly above all those who were set upon at that time. Many and great things he also suffered for the doctrine of Christ, as bonds, bodily torments, the punishment of the iron-chain in the inmost recesses of the prison. He was put upon the rack, his feet for several days being stretched so wide as to the distance of four holes. He valiantly sustained the menaces of fire, and all other tortures inflicted by his enemies the judge with his utmost power earnestly endeavouring that he might not soon be slain. Yet his expressions left behind are comfortable to the helpless."
Decius dying, Origen was released; and he spent the remainder of his life in doing good to the sick, the poor, and suffering. He is truly said to have had mighty regard to the glory of God, and the good of souls, whose happiness he studied by all ways to pronote, and thought nothing hard, nothing servile, that he might advance them." He was supported by an allowance of five pence a day, from the purchaser of his library; and died A. D. 253, at Tyre, "the envy of his own, and the wonder of succeeding ages."
Except a few fragments, all the astonishing works of Origen have perished, by the ravages of martial barbarians
THE lion doth refresh himself with the prey that he taketh; but the covetous man layeth by his money as a sick man sits by his meat, and hath no power to taste it. Thus the covetous man maketh a fool of himself. He coveteth to covet: he gathereth to gather: he laboureth to labour: he careth to care: as though his office were to fill a coffer full of gold, and then to die; like an ass which carrieth treasures on his back all day, and at night they are taken from him, which did no good but to load him. How happy were some, if they knew not gold from lead !-Smith.