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by leaving her neighbours alone, telling them in which its author has placed it.
“In former periods, Spain had been conLord Palmerston did not boldly meet Sir nected with different countries; at one time Robert Peel's assertion of principles; but with Austria, at another time with France. he stated in reply that it became necessary should be neither an Austrian Spain nor a
The object was, that for the future there that the understanding between Spain and French Spain, but a Spain which should be Portugal as to the expulsion of the princes, Spanish: If Spain was to be im. should be recorded in a treaty; and, “it portant in the balance of power, it was neces. was therefore deemed expedient by the gov-sary that she should be rich and independent. ernments of France and England to adopt -She could not be so under such a govern. the agreement, and to adopt parties to the ment as that of Ferdinand, (or Don Car. treaty concluded between these powers.”
los.)'* Beseeching attention to the word in italics we would ask wherefore? Could illogical
Surely, the noble lord's views are not here ingenuity devise a more remarkable non se very clearly stated. It is true that the Kings quitur ?
of Spain have been successively of the House But Lord Palmerston proceeded to show, of Austria, and of the House of Bourbon ; from the preamble,
of the family which furnishes sovereigns to
an important portion of Germany and Italy, “ That the immediate object of the treaty and of the family of the Kings of France. was tu establish internal peace in the penin- Lord Palmerston approves of neither one of sula, and the means by which it proposed to these connections, but would make Spain, effect that object was, the expulsion of Don Spanish. This would be more intelligible Carlos and Don Miguel from Portugal. When Carlos returned to Spain it was
if he were labouring to place in the Escuri. thought necessary to frame the additional ar
al some noble Castilian, equally unconnected ticles."
with Vienna and Paris. But he will make
Spain independent ! How? By giving her Now, leaving the First Lord of the Trea- a government incapable of maintaining itsury and the Secretary for Foreign Affairs self without foreign aid. To make Spain to settle between them what their joint object independent, we have already said, is not our really was, we will admit, in argument, fair : if it were, we must set about it in ano. that the object of the treaty was, to maintain ther manner. the constitutional governments in both king. But we have still one more authorised verdoms, and to effect the pacification of the sion of the treaty, and, as the speech which whole peninsula. We admit with Lord Pal. contains it is the latest and the most elabo. merston that there was a complete identifi- rate, we presume that it is the favourite of cation of interests between Queen Isabella its author. and William IV. We admit the fact of the It was clear, said Lord Palmerston in the connection, but contend that it was useless last Session,t that out of the change made and burdensome.
by Ferdinand in the internal institutions of Our secretary contended, in the same Spain, mus: arise "a change in the tendenspeech, that when there is a civil war, all cies of its external policy.” From Ferdiwriters on the law of nations agreed that nand's death, there was a change in the po. other powers . ight take part with either of licy of Spain as to Portugal. the two belligerents. It is possible that pas. sages to this effect may be found in systema: the contest that was going on in Portugal.
Englard had at first remained neutral in tic writers, though not as we suspect, without What was then our language to Spain? We the condition annexed, that the safety or es said to the Spanish government, 'If you send sential interests of the stranger requires that armed men across the frontier of Portuinterference ; but let jurists have said what gal to assist Don Miguel, the British they may, we hold by the doctrine of Lord fleet in the Tagus will instantly co-operate Aberdeen, that
with the forces of Donna Maria ; if you do
not send troops and do not otherwise inter“No war is justifiable which is not either fere, we will not take part in the contest.' strictly a war of defence, or one in which the What was the result ? Spain remained pasinterests involved are of such magnitude as fairly to give it a defensive characier."
* March 10, 1837, Parl. Deb. xxxvii. 267. We wish to view the treaty in every light (xxxvii. 1418) Mr. Maclean quoted as Heeren's
, † April 19, 1837, xxxviii 69. In this debate
à passage from our 19th vol. p. 184. It was our ► March 18, 1836, xxxii, 387.
comment upon Heeren.
sive, and England continued neutral.*_Af. But Lord Palmerston's speculations were ter Ferdinand's death, the new Spanish gov- much deeper. ernment sent to request England to assist in expelling Don Miguel from Portugal and tu
“ The establishment of Don Carlos on the establish Donna Maria ;-because Don Car-throne of Spain would be incompatible with los was in Spain organizing an army. Eng the independence, the security and 'tranquilland refused; •We will not comply with your lity of France; and thus peace would be de. request, we will not give the military assist. stroyed in the rest of Europe.” ance you desire to the cause of Donna Maria. We have taken our line of policy and from These distant speculations are justified by that line we do not intend to depart. We will, however give you something which will be
a story (to which, however, the noble Secre. of advantage to you. We will give you a tary does not pledge himself )—that when treaty.'
Charles X. was dethroned in 1830, and some
of the Continental powers thought of interfer. And then comes what we suppose we ing, one of them sent to invite Spain (then must take for the explanation of the therefre under the government of Ferdinand) to send in the former speech. The expulsion of 40,000 men across the Pyrenees while France Carlos required a treaty between Spain and was attacked on the Rhine. We suppose Portugal. England said,
that the far-fetched inference is, that so soon
as the Continental powers saw a government “We will embrace the occasion which in Spain, supposed to sympathise in their this convention affords us, to join the four
views, they would attack France, and Spain great powers of the West of Europe in one alliance, for the attainment of one common
would give them powerful aid. Or is it that and general object.”
“ England Spain would quarrel with France, and the and France had for ages been enemies, Spain Continental powers assist her ? and Portugal had long been accustomed to Passing over the novelly of this overween. regard each other with jealousy; To converting anxiety lest France should be attacked these former enernies and rivals into friends and einbarrassed- for we do not desire war and allies was surely a good deed and tended to preserve peace.”
anywhere-we ask whether the possible oc
currence of this confederacy against France, The treaty, it is added, produced the surren- which did not occur, under those which are der of Miguel. It was thus Lord Palmer- represented as similar circumstances, can be ston's expectation, that the union of England seriously adduced as a motive for our inter. and France, and Spain and Portugal, in one ference in Spain ? common, though temporary object, would do Does Lord Palmerston think that, if we away all the causes of enmity and rivalry let Spain alone, the Spaniards will place Don between these respective states. France Carlos upon the throne? If that is his opiand England, so far as we know, were going nion, he must talk no more of his liberal and on very well together ; there was, at least, popular principles ; but he has said, we be. as much sympathy between ther, as believe, that the majority is with the Queen. tween either of them and any other govern. Then, where is the danger ? What chance ment; and in order to improve this good un- is there of a Carlist government? And in derstanding they make stipulations, not equal, this, and in all such cases whatever, we ask not very clear or definite,—not limited in how much of probability is there that when duration, exçept by an event of incalculable the events occur against which we are prooccurence.
viding-if they do occur—our friends and our We should have said, à priori, and we are enemies, our preferences and our wishes, our sure that those who are acquainted with the points of interest and security, will still be the history of alliancest will say 100 that a trea. same. ty of this sort was more likely to lead to the We have scarcely room for the iwo topics breach than the improvement of friendship. which remain-Colonel Evan' legion, and And so it is that the only known differences our discussions with France. between France and England have arisen We know that works may be quoted against out of this very transaction.
us, but we are clearly of opinion that a stałe
ought not to permit its subjects to engage in * We have no space for the Poriuguese ques- a war, except under circumstances which
but we cannot admit that the English gov- would authorize the employment of the na. ernment was bona fide neutral in the contests between Pedro and Miguel; they professed neutra- tional troops ; and therefore condemning the lity, but look no pains to enforce it. And they interference in the internal affairs of Spainencouraged France to oppress Portugal; and as not being required by paramount and unwould not give her the benefit of the treaties with equivocal English interests—we necessarily England, of which, nevertheless, they compelled condemn the permission to private persons her to perform her part. † Ste F. Q. R. vol xix. p. 135.
to serve the Queen. Lord Melbourne holds,
that “no obstacle should be thrown in the M. Thiers. “Quant à notre alliance avec way of those who are desirous of engaging l’Angleterre, elle en est considérablement in war, and who were desirous of learning amoindrie. ... L'Angleterre est désormais that which was merely a practical art!"* Ifthis bien avertie qu'elle ne peut plus compter sur were the motive of ihe prime minister, why vous qui lui aviez promis de co.opérer avec were the scholars restricted to one school ? elle dans cette question très difficile où elle The permission ought in this view to be gen. est engagée, et dangereusement engagée si eral.
elle ne réussit pas ... vous avez l’Angle. But if the defeat of Don Carlos, and the terre avertie qu'elle ne peut pas compter sur establishment of the Queen's government in la France dans une situation difficile, ct aver. Spain, really is of so much importance as tie qu'elle n'a à songer qu'à ses propres in. our ministers have taught us to believe, how térêts."* Let it not be said that this is the sadly have we neglected our duty in sending speech of an ex-minister. It is adopted as these volunteers only! Don Carlos, says the creed of an English diplomate, whose Lord Palmerston, is not Napoleon ; a small views of Spanish affairs are commended by er force is sufficient to expel him. But we our Foreign Minister. According to this have not expelled him. 'Our force is not writer the effect of the Quadruple Treaty sufficient. We have not tranquillized Spain. upon the relations of France and England We have not made Spain independent and has not been friendship, but estrangement. rich! Just in proportion as one admits Lord He speaks loudly of the union of those two Palmerston's estimate of the importance of powers, and of its beneficial effect upon the the Quadruple Alliance must he calculate world, until he treats of it in reference to the disgrace of its failure. Or if it be true Spain : and then, it has developed in our (as it probably is) that no exertion which we near ally an "inexplicable policy”—"a fast could make would really effect the pacifica- and loose policy"-"a Machiavelian policy;" tion of Spain, where is the wisdom of engag. and it is distinctly affirmed that France has ing, without
limitation of time, to attempt turned her back upon England. it ?
Yet while these hard words are launched Lord Palmerston, as Foreign Secretary, at Louis-Philippe, it cannot be said that he has properly said very little of his discussions has violated the treaty; he is justified by its with France; but he has lauded without qua- letter, and he has an equal right with Lord lification a pamphleit which is more explicit. Palmerston to interpret its spirit
. Yet we The speeches of Louis Philippe himself--one may say, either he has failed in his performof them condemning us in no unequivocal ance, or we failed egregiously in our stipulalanguage, for the matter of the legiont-in. tion. dicate pretty clearly a difference of opinion, The author of the pamplet does not hesiand no very friendly feeling. But the advo- tate to say,I that if France had in June, 1835, cate of the ministerial policy in Spain has no made the movement beyond the frontier reserve, unless it be in the use of one diplo. which England recommended, the object of matic figure of speech, whereby he has no the alliance would have been accomplished. right to doubt's that which he intends us The writer here speaks with a degree of positively to disbelieve. It is quite clear, ac. confidence which no knowledge can justify; cording to this favoured writer, that France but surely, if so slight an effort on the part has separated herself from England in the of France would picify Spain, and that
pa. matter of the Quadruple Alliance. And the cification has really the importance which same announcement was distinctly made by our ministers ascribe to it, it is their duty to
make greater efforts to attain it. And if the * March 18, 1836 xxxii. 395.
favoured of Lord Palmerston is good autho. + The Policy of England towards Spain. rity, England could of herself annihilate the
"I entertain the most sincere desire for the Carlists. S If this be so, which, however, we consolidation of the throne of Isabella 11., and 1 greatly doubt, the ministers are traitors to the trust that the constitutional monarchy will triumph over the perils with which it is threaten- interests which they acknowledge. ed. But I applaud myself for having preserved Now what is the result of the policy of the France from sacrifices, the extent of which can- Whigs? not be appreciated, and from the incalculable
They made a treaty to pacify Spain, and consequences of any urmed intervention in the internalaffairs of the peninsula. France reserves
eserves to strengthen their intimacy with France. the blood of her children for her own cause, and They have not pacified Spain ; and they have when she is reduced to the painful necessity of summoning them to shed that blood in her defence, it is only under our own glorious colours * Speech of M. Thiers, January 14, 1837, that the soldiers of France march to battle." + Page 107. (December 27, 1836.]
# Page 113. § Page 149
$ Page 138. 28
created a cause of difference with France to the Quadruple Treaty, by the payment of last as long as their treaiy. And though one sum of money to the Queen of Spain ; they do not advance one step towards their and return to that " imperturbable neutrality" object, they are obliged, even now that the which Mr. Canning enforced and practised. tragical episode of the legion is at an end, to feed at some expense an unfruitful warfare.
France has found out her error, and her engagements, more cautiously framed than ours, permit her to withdraw without a breach of faith, leaving us alone in the scrape. Art. VI.-1. Nederlandsche Legenden in
Our alliance, therefore, may be said 10 Rijm gebracht (Netherland Legends verhave been already dissoiveu, even as 10 its sified), by M. J. van Lennep. 6 Vols. primary object. What right then have we 8vo. Amsterdam, 1832. io expect that it should be operative for il:ose 3. De Pleegzoon, een verhaul (The Adopted more indefinite and speculative purposes Son, a Tale), by M. J. van Lennep. 2 which Lord Palmerston had in view ? We Vols. 8vo. Amsterdam, 1835, 22d edi. say, which Lord Palmerston had in view, for tion. it is not the least remarkable part of this 3. Het Dorp over de Grenzen, eene Schets transaction, that its most interested motives, uit den laatsten Veldtocæt (The Village and most considerable ends, have never been beyond the Frontiers, a Sketch from the publicly acknowledged, save by one only lasi Campaign), by M. J. van Lennep. of the parties.
Amsterdam, 1831. Surely, if there be any truth in the history, 4. Johanna Shore, Treurspel (Jane Shore, which, not for party purposes, but in the a Tragedy), by A. van der Hoop, jun., shape of a systematic treatise, we lately Dordrecht, 1834. gave of our continental connections, the 5. Poezij (Poetry), by A. van der Hoop, Quadruple Treaty is obnoxious to every ob jun. 8vo. Amsterdam, 1836. jection made upon principle, and illustrative, 6. De Renegaat, een berijmed Verhaal in its results, of the soundness of our doctrine, (The Renegade, a poetic Tale), by A. van Viewed as a speculative scheme for making der Hoop, jun. 8vo. Anisterdam, 1638. friends, to be useful in some unknown and unforeseen situation of affairs, it bears some At a very early period of our labours* we resemblance to Mr. Pite's Triple Alliance of thought it incumbent to communicate to our 1788; but that alliance commenced with suc- readers the astounding fact, that the dykes, cess, whereas this we speak of the extend ditches, and marshes of Holland boast their ed treaty of August-has had no result but Parnassus ! Nor is it perhaps a fact less controversial if not angry discussion between startingly inconsistent with our national opin. the principal allies, and unfruitful expedition, ion and ideal of a Dutchman, that those vo. and an useless expense.
taries of the muse who steal a few hours In the former case, a war soon arose, out from money.making, or from needful recre. of causes altogether unforeseen, and under ation amongst tulips and tobacco, to climb circumstances entirely new. Our ally has the forked hill
, are loved and honoured in soon been numbered among our enemies. that most trafficking of communities, instead
We will not deal in the speculation which of being hooted for pursuing an idie trade, our principles teach us to mistrust, by pointing as is the excellent and established practice at a quarter in which an enemy may appear; of our own land. Yet so it is. Vondel and but we would ask Lord Palmerston to point Cats amongst elder poets, Bilderdyk and out the possible enemy, formidable to our Tollens amongst the living-i. e. when we maritime, colonial, or commercial interests, last turned our eyes their way-are assuredly against which our partners in the Quadruple not the names in which their countrymen Treaty would cordially assist us.
take least pride. Since we thus wrote, the But waving all these more general consi. Dutch literary world has experienced changderations, and looking only to the pacifica. es ; Bilderdyk, fondly denominated the Dutch tion of Spain, let us do one of two things. If Göthe, is, like his prototype, dead, and Tolthe object is really important, and if it might lens has ceased to publish. Bui, 10 supply (as we are told) be accomplished by one con. their places, a new swarm of poets has apsiderable exertion, let ministers go boldly to peared, inspired, it may be, in some measure parliament for the means, and do that upon by patriotic zeal to redeem their native lanwhich, they say, the peace of the world de guage from the obloquy cast upon it by their pends. If not, let them disengage us from former fellow-snbjects, the Belgians, in the
* Vol. xix.
* See Foreign Quarterly Review, Vol. IV. p. 36.
vanity of half Gallicism, at the time of sepa., model, however delightful that model in itself. ration; and as their German King Leopold Scott's excellences are of a kind to super. has lately discovered that Belgiau indepen. sede the very highest strains of genius. His dence must be a non.entity if not Teutonic, vivid graphic touches, the drama of his he is accordingly endeavouring to revive the scenes, the s rong individuality of his person. old Flemish or Low German language in ages, and the living spirit of his verse, hurry his dominions.
the reader along, leaving him no leisure to But our business is with the literature of miss the depth of thought or those loftiest Holland, and to that we return. The writer powers of poetry which seem the native now in activity, to borrow a French idiom, element of Shakspeare and Byron. In all and who has mosi riearly succeeded to Bil. his imitators we have invariably felt this want derdyk's popularity, is Van Lennep, at this of a rich, high, and glowing tone; and Van moment one of the chief law officers of the Lennep, though far from deficient in general crown, und formerly mentioned as a promis- powers, though he describes faithfully, and ing poet, known by his translations. He brings the past strongly before us-though has, however, long since discarded the lite. his characters are well.conceived and indirary go.cart of translation, and although apvidualized, and his verse spirited—is no exparently aspiring less to actual originality ception from the rule. than to the title of a Dutch Walter Scoti, has The Netherland Legends are, as the name set forward independently in the various imports, all founded upon the early history paths of the poet, the novelist, and the comic of the Seven Provinces; we select Adegild, dramatist, following his great prototype both not as superior to the War with Flanders, in the selection and treatment of his subjects. but because the placing of the scene amongst We shall speak of him in his several capaci- the heathen Frisians, gives it more originality. ties, and first, in due order, as a poet. The poem opens with the celebrated answer
Van Lennep possesses considerable poetic of the Frisian King to the missionary about powers, but he has not happily selected his 'to baptize him.
The Monarch spake; and dread the words of fear
"Return so soon, blest Lord !-fulfilled each rite ?
Re!ained each sterner pulse his nature fed. Two of the principal characters being thus / upon a Viking expedition, under the control introduced, the story of the poem may be of Grimwald. They capture a vessel, on brefly dispatched. It turns upon the neces board of which are a Christian Prince and sity of Ming Ra'lbod's atoning for his intend. Princess of Northumberland, with a suite of ed apostacy, by a human sacrifice. To pro ecclesiastics. Adegild and Grimwald quarrel curc victims, he sends out his son, Adegild, I about the treatment of their prisoners, and