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every Christian should follow: firm devotion to principles; charity in matters of indifference. Were St. Paul living now, he would probably, as a general thing, abstain from the use of wine (and he certainly would never go into a tavern or saloon to get a drink); but if this were demanded of him as a matter of principle, to be forced upon all men,- in the manner of the ancient Colossiati errorists, or in the manner of those in modern tim s who curse the gifts of God (Ps. civ. 15) even including the communion wiue, the Apostle would undoubtedly protest in the most vigorous terms, as he did against those Colossian errorists (Col. ii. 20-23). That I might by all means save some. God will have all men to be saved, but their salvation can only be accomplished through human agency. God uses men to save men. And to be employed as an instrument: of salvation to others is the noblest use to which a man can be put.
Verse 23. And this I do. I practise this self-denial and make these sacrifices. For the Gospel's sake, i. e. in order to promote its progress. That I might be partaker thereoj with you. That 1 may share the blessings thereof with you—that we may be in common partakers of salvation. Every Christian, as a condit'on of his own salvation must earnestly desire and labor for the salvation of others. And in order to promote the salvation of others, it may often become our duty to practise selfden al from a consideration of their weaknesses, prejudices, vices (Rom. xv. 1). And this duty does not apply simply to the use of strong drinks, but of every thing else. See Rom. xiv. 21. We are to do nothing that, either in the way of example or of direct provocation, will cause any body to sin. But this is a rule that can not be enforced by formal regulations. The weak have no right to demand it. If they should presume to do this, that would prove them to be no longer weak, but insolent and vain, and would put them beyond the reach of the benefit to be derived from the self-denial of the strong. What consideration does the drunkard deserve, who insists on all temperate men to take a pledge of total abstinence, as a condition of keeping him sober? That
might be the weakness of vanity, but it would not be the weakness of an humble sinner.
Verse 24. Know ye not, &c. As an illustration of his theme the Apostle here calls to the attention of his readers the races, or contests in running, connected with the Grecian games, with which his readers were familiar. These games were of different kinds and were celebrated at different times and places throughout Greece. Those with which the readers of this Epistle were most familiar, were the Isthmian, which were celebrated every second year on the Isthmus of Corinth. They consisted in contests in music, poetry, chariot races, running, wrestling, boxing, &c The victors in these contests received as a prize a crown of laurel, were led home in triumph by their friends, had their praises celebrated by the poets, and were ever after regarded as illustrious men. To win a prize in any of these contests was a matter of the highest ambition, and those engaged therein would strive most earnestly. And to one of these, namely the foot-race, the Apostle compares the Christian life, because the final victory can not be won without the utmost exertion.
Verse 25. Every man that striveth .. .is temperate, i. e. exercises selfcontrol, practises moderation. For months before, those contemplating to engage in these contests, exercised themselves with a view to it, abstaining from every thing that could enfeeble the body, doing every thing that could strengthen it, and getting it under perfect control. That is the fundamental meaning of temperance. The original word here is derived from en (in) and kratos (power) and signifies to have oneself in one's own power, then to exercise self-control.—They do it to obtain a corruptible crown, i. e. one composed of laurel. We an incorruptible. Eternal life and glory. In order to win this we also must be temperate in all things. We must not let our appetites, passions, lusts control us, but we (the self, the reason and will) must control and hold to their proper functions all these lower tendencies of our nature.—One of the most dangerous kinds of intemperance, of which it is positively declared in Scripture (1 Cor. vi. 10) that it exeludes from the inheritance of the kingdom of God, is drunkenness. This is a monstrous evil, which is daily sending thousands of souls to perdition. And yet strange to tell, much of the temperance work of the day, instead of helping the weak to gain proper control over themselves, consists simply in quarreling with those who do control themselves! The idea seems to be that one can not be sober until every body else has become a total abstainer. Think of a Grecian, preparing for the race-course taking such a position! But he who strove for a corruptible crown was not so foolish. Others might give themselves up to the indulgence of their lusts; that was nothing to the man who expected to win a crown; he kept on exercising himself and getting control over his body all the same. And that is the example which St. Paul holds up to the Christian. Let not your temperance be conditioned on the conduct of others. That is no true temperance, or self-control, at all, which is dependent only on external pressure.
Verses 26-27. I therefore so run, i. e. I do not wait to see what others may do. Not as uncertainly, but directly towards the goal and certain of the issue. One that beateth the air, instead of hitting the antagonist. The man who strikes at random, without hitting the intended object, is said to beat the air. J keep under my body, &c. That is the necessary condition of temperance. The appetites and desires which lead to intemperance have their seat in the body. These, therefore, need to be watched and subdued. The intemperate man's worst enemies are not taverns and breweries, but his own appetites; and simply to fight the former, would only be to beat the air; the real battle must be with the latter. But how can these be overcome and the body kept in subjection? Only by the grace of Christ and the influence of the Holy Spirit (Rom. vii. 24-2o; Gal. v. 6). But let it be remembered that the Spirit will not govern and lead us without regard to our own will. All Christian virtues, though they are the fruits of the Spirit, must nevertheless be also the product of our own will. Temperance, though only possible t>y the aid of divine grace delivering us from the power of sinful
lusts, must still ever consist in self-control (the exercise of the power of reason and will over the lower appetites and desires). Intemperance is not a disease, like scarlatina fur instance, that involves the individual in no moral responsibility, and that can be cured simply by the application of remedies from without. It is a vice, a sin, which results from the will entering into the lusts of the body and fertilizing them (James i. 15). The remedy against it must, therefore, He equally in the divine grace and in the self-determining power of the will. No amount of outward pressure, no external helps merely can produce temperance. Only God's grace in the soul and the due exertion of self (reason and will) can ever do it.
Gather Them In.—Iu every Sunday-school there are a number of young people, whom the teacher would recognize as properly disposed toward religious influences. They are attentive, thoughtful. They seem not to be offended, but to take pleasure, when general instructions are given bearing on Christian life. They are faithful to their religious duties. They are regular attendants at church and Sundayschool. They are evidently trying, in a considerable measure, to do what is right. They never fail of their form of prayer on retiring to sleep. They say, or would say, they want to be Christians. Of many such the pastor or superintendent would say, that he hoped they were already Christians. Now, it is a wicked shame to the church that it should allow such souls to drift and drift along year after year, waiting for a revival, without gathering them into its communion. Gather them in. They are waiting to be gathered into the church. They are in danger while left outeide; in danger of relapsing, through your neglect, into heedlessness and sin. —Independent.
A Fall of one inch in ten miles in a river will produce a current. The elope of the rivers flowing into the Mississippi from the east is about three inches per mile; from the west six inches per mile.
A Room full of little school children in town or country is a pleasing scene. If not on the same benches and along the same desks, at least in the same room, boys and girls in harmless proximity, and from the same text books, con over their lessons. Some of us older people used to sit on longer benches — and the old-time desks had room for ten or a dozen scholars instead of for one or two. Then as now the irrepressible boy with his barlow knife, instead of studying his open bock before him, carved and whittled his odd devices on bench and desk. Boys and girls were in the same room, and often in the same class; and many a furtive glance did each the other give, as boys and girls are wont to do all the world over. Now all this may work much good and little harm tup to a certain age and stage of study. But there comes a time when one and the same class, text book and school discipline will not answer equally well for the youth and the growing girl. The one needs a peculiar and special teaching and training for manly duties, qualities and work; the other needs a schooling specially suited to train the hands, the heart, and the mind of the girls for the sphere of womanly, if not wifely and motherly, usefulness and work. The true system of teaching no -less than the life path of the two sexes diverges as they advance in years. The type of mind, tastes, sympathies and point of view are largely different. Even where both enter the same callings or professions, as clerks, authors, teachers, or physicians, the same education for both must prove abnormal and unnatural. The two are differently constituted, and in training and tuition need a correspondingly different treatment. I do not believe that the co-education of
the sexes as it prevails in certain institutions of learning can in the end succeed. It is not in keeping with the normal condition of things. What may answer for the little boy and girl in the primary school-room will not answer for the same persons ten years later.
On this subject the Christian Intelligencer says:
"During the earlier years of life, brothers and sisters can keep pace with each other in acquirement—with perhaps the difference that the girls apprehend with rather more quickness than the boys, and to a certain point outshine them in the display of their attainments. While they are little children under the sheltering wing of the mother, and brooded over in the home nest, there is no reason for sending them to different primary schools. But there comes a time in the experience of parents when they are obliged to recognize with a mingled feeling of pain and pleasure that their young birdlings are preparing to fly. The boy of fourteen Degius to show the ambitions and tendencies of the future man. The girl of the same age shows in many a subtle way that the spirit of womanhood has awakened within her. Notwithstanding special and even numerous exceptions, it remains true that the great outside work of the world is to be done by men. They are to thrust and parry blows in the conflict, to carry on wars and engage in diplomatic strifeg, to make money, to explore new lands, to take the brunt of the rough pioneering, and pilot the hundred-handed operations of commerce. For their life-labor they need a training somewhat other, in detail, from that required by woman, whose kingdom remains within the seclusion of home. Hers are the sweet supremacies of love. The cradling of infancy in her tender arms, the unconquerable strength of pa
tience, and the sacred guiding of child- i hood's opening and most susceptible i years. That some women must enter i into competition with men in the mer- i cantile arena, that others rightly and 1 with abundant honor may distinguish themselves in professional life, proves j nothing against the rule that woman is the mother of the race; that she bears in her own person the penalties and wears on her brow ihe wreaths of her God-given position. Common sense and unprejudiced observation alike indicate that lor her, when the maiden step pauses on the threshold where womanhood and childhood meet, there should be a different intellectual discipline from that demanded by the young man."
We have no fears that any of the girls and young ladies who read the Guardian will ever become stagestruck; that is to say, take a crazy ambition to become actresses, although some persons as sensible as they have taken the disease to their shame and sorrow. Strolling through the shaded suburbs of the city of Zurich one day, I happened to get npar the camp of an open air theatre. It may have been an hour or two before the play began. Around different tables I saw wearylooking young women and young men sitting with books in hand learning their pieces. Some of the girls, with elbows propped on the table, leaned their faces on a hand and toiled at their memorizing task. Others around them cracked jokes with the men. The faces and demeanor of the women indicated a painful lack of lady-like qualities. This female craze for the stage, if persisted in, in most cases brings its victims to grief and ruin. Mr. Labi uchere, a writer otherwise in sympathy with actors and their profession, says: "Actresses live in a world of their own. They generally exaggerate every sentiment. Their real life is tinged with their theatrical life, and high-wrought melodrama becomes a second nature to them. Few of them have a perfectly sane notion of existence; they exist in the feeling of the moment. They are generally incapable of taking an interest in the ordinary occupations of their sex; at one moment they are in the
wildest spirits, at another in the depths
of despair, and those with whom they come in contact are in their eyes alternately either melodramatic villains plotting their destruction or those angelic beings that have no existence out of plays. There are certain qualities which go to make an actress, and most of them go to make a lunatic."
Luther says: "The devil is very proud, and what he least likes is to be laughed at." And further he says: "Satan hates music; he knows how it drives the evil spirit out of us." Both of which sayings are very true. A very high authority tells us: "Be sober, be viailau'," in order to resist the devil. Which, however, does not meau that to cultivate a drooping, wilted frame of mind is the chief duty of man. A sulky, grave-yard spirit is not the spirit of Christ. The most saintly have ever been the most joyful people and the most given to sacred songs of praise. Laughter is not necessarily sinful. At the proper time and place it may be a virtue and prove a great blessing to others. Somehow I have always felt myself drawn towards the person capable of a hearty, ringing laugh; and somehow, too, have felt myself strangely repulsed from those who could not or would not laugh outright on right occasions. It in some way ever augurs something wrong. Dr. Taylor, a very godly man, who gave forty years of his grand life to save the poor heathen from degradation and ruin, says: "Be cheerful. A long face is. a breach of the peace. An habitual smile is worth a thousand dollars. The heathens are blue. They go daily with downcast eyes and sorrowful faces. They have no God but devils. Their entire life is one of fear. Their religion excites nothing so much as anxious dread. Christianity is hopeful. Let its promises gladden the heart and the face also. The Gospel you preach will thereby double its power."
A pleasing evidence of a good Sunday School is when a goodly number of its young men become useful ministers of the Gospel. And an excellent proof of the sound doctrine and godly living taught in a Theological Seminary is the eagerness of its students to give their
life to Foreign missions. Not that many ministers in the home field do not endure just as hard and self-denying work as those laboring in the heathen world. On this subject erroneous views are prevailing. Some people write and talk as if the highest type of heroic consecration to Christ were always and only found among foreign missionaries. Whereas it requires as much faith and grace to be a faithful and true pastor at home as in heathen lands; and just as saintly examples of self-forgetting and self-sacrificing devotion to the Master's cause are found at home as abroad. And many a hard-working pastor at home is far more meagerly supported than are the most of those laboring in heathen lands. And yet to easeloving young men the life-long separation from friends, home and the comforts of social and civilized life is no trifling matter. To exchange the peace and quiet of a home pastorate, among people of one's own language, nation and religious belief, for the rude, uncouth barbarism and squalor of pagan lands; after six weighty years of diligent study at home, to begin a new course of years of hard study abroad in order to acquire a speaking and writing knowledge of some of the most difficult languages of our fallen race—all this in Booth requires a very high degree of earnestnese and consecration. It is reported that among fifteen graduates from the United Presbyterian Seminary at Xenia, Ohio, nearly all offered their services as foreign missionaries. Owing to a want of funds, but two can be sent on—one to Egypt and one to India. Is there another Seminary in this country where eo large a proportion of students have volunteered for such a service?
Sarah B. Judson and Napoleon Bona parte.*
BY THE EDITOR.
She was by birth a New Hampshire girl, among whose sterile hills Ralph and Abiah Hall for a while coaxed their scanty bread out of an unfruitful
* Memoir of Sarah B. Judson, by Emily C. Judson.
soil. In her childhood they sought their bread in New York and Massachusetts. The parents were blessed with many children and little means to support them. Sarah was the eldest of thirteen sons and daughters. From her childhood she helped to care for the younger lambs of this domestic fold. At this time already she kept a little diary, in which she noted her little joys and trials. She was eager to go to school, but until her more advanced girlhood found neither time nor means to gratify her wishes. At one place she says: "My mother cannot spare me to attend school this winter, but I have begun this evening to pursue my studies at home." The following spring she says: "My parents are not in a situation to send me to school this summer, so I must make every exertion in my power to improve at home." She makes these entries not in a complaining spirit, but in cheerful acquiescence with the leadings of Providence. Although but a little girl, she sacrificed precious school years in order that she might help her parents, and resolutely husbanded her fragments of leisure at home for her mental improvement. Among other methods, she proposed an exchange of letters to an intimate friend. She was gifted with rare poetic talent, which, save a copy of "Ossian" and Thomson's "Castle of Indolence," she had little to gratify. This, however, compelled her to seek food for imaginative longings in the great book of Nature opened around her.
Later her school privileges improved. At seventeen she taught for a few months —then went to school herself with the help of her earnings. For a while she taught a class of little girls in the afternoon, in order that she might have wherewith to pay for her own recitations in the morning. Bight hard studies, too, did she undertake at this time, such as Butler's "Analogy" and Paley's "Evidences." About this time she gave her heart formally to Christ In reading the life of Rev. Samuel J. Mills, a devoted missionary, she was seized with a burning desire to follow the example of this good man. She exclaimed: "Oh! that I too cjuld suffer privations, hardships and discouragements, and even find a watery grave, for the sake