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PENNY MAGAZINE.

NO 70.

PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY.

October 5, 1833.

PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY C. WOOD AND SON, POPPIN'S COURT, FLEET STREET, LONDOS.

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THE DYING CAMP OF ISRAEL. Painters and poets have found ample scope for the indulgence of a fertile imagination in the Dying Camp of Israel. The melancholy fuct, and the miraculous cure, furnish us with the most instructive lessons ; and they are especially commended to our consideration by the reference to the circumstances made by our blessed Saviour.

Moses records that extraordinary event thus :“And they journeyed from Mount Hor by the way of the Red Sea, to compass the land of Edom : and the soul of the people was much discouraged because of

And the people spake against God, and against Moses, Wherefore have ye brought us up out of Egypt to die in the wilderness ? for there is no bread, neither is there any water; and our soul loatheth this light bread. And the LORD seut fiery serpents among the people, and they hit the people; and much people of Israel died. Therefore the people came to Muses, and said, We have sinned, for we have spoken against the Lord, agd against thee; pray unto the LORD, that he take away the serpents froin us. And Moses prayed for the people. And the LORD said unto Moses, Make thee a fiery serpent, and set it upon a pole : and it shall come to pass, that every one that

Vol. II.

the way;

is bitten, when he looketh upon it, shall live. And Moses made a serpent of brass, and put it upon a pole ; and it caine to pass, that if a serpent had bitteu any man, when he beheld the serpent of brass, he lived.” Num. xxi, 4-9. Our Lord, in discoursing with Nicodemus, says,

As Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of mau be lifted up: that whosoever believeth in hion should not perish, but have eternal life.” John iii, 14, 15.

Clearly to apprehend the circumstances of the Israel. ites, at the period of this visitation, it will be necessary to consider the wilderness, the vast Desert of Arabia, in which they were sojourning, led by the visible tokens of the Divine Presence, and supplied in all things needful, by his special, miraculous providence.

The Wilderness “ in which the children of Israel so. journed after their departure from Egypt, is in the Sa. cred Writings particularly called The Desert ; very numerous are the allusions made to it, and to the Divine protection and support, which were extended to thern during their inigration. Moses, when recapitulating their various deliverances, terms this desert 'a desert land, and waste howling wilderness,'. Deut. xxxii, 10; and that great and terrible wilderness, wherein were fiery serpents, scorpions, and drought, where there was no water.” Deut. viii, 15. The pro

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phet Hosea describes it as a land of great drought,' If the camels are lying down, and cannot be made to Hos. xiii, 5; but the most minute description is that rise- -no one has strength to walk-only he that has a in Jer. ii, 6, 'a land of deserts and of pits, a land of glass of that precious liquor lives to walk a mile farther, drought, and of the shadow of death, a land that no and, perhaps, dies too. If the voyages on seas are man passed through, and where no man dwelt.' These

dangerous, so are those in the deseris. At sea, the characteristics of the desert, particularly the want of provisions very often fail; in the desert it is worse: at water, will account for the repeated murmurings of the sea, storms are met with; in the desert, there cannot be Israelites, both for food and water (especially the a greater storm than to find a dry well; at sea, one latter): and the extiemity of their sufferings is thus meets with pirates - we escape - we surrender- we concisely, but most emphatically pourtrayed by the die : in the desert they rob the traveller of all his Psalmist (cvii, 5).

property and water ; they let him live, perhaps, but •Hungry and thirsty, their soul fainted in them.'

what a life! to die the most barbarous and agoniz

ing death. In short, to be thirsty in a desert, without “In this our temperate climate, surrounrled as we are

water, exposed to the burning sun, without shelter, with perpetual verdure, and with every object that can and no hopes of finding either, is the most terrible delight the eye, we can scarcely conceive the horrors

situation that a man can be placed in, and one of the encountered by the bapless traveller when crossing the trackless sands, and exposed to all the ardours of a

greatest sufferings that a human being can sustain: the

eyes grow inflamed; the tongue and lips swell; a vertical sun. The most recent, as well as the most hollow sound is heard in the ears, which brings on graphic description of a desert (which admirably illus- deafness, and the brains appear to grow thick and inirates the passages above cited), is that given by the flamed :— all these feelings arise from the want of a enterprising traveller, M. Belzoni, whose researches little water. In the midst of all this misery, the de. have contributed so much to the elucidation of the ceitful morasses appear before the traveller at no great sacred writings. Speaking of a desert crossed by him distance, something like a lake or river of clear fresh in Upper Egypt, on the western side of the Red Sea,

water. If, perchance, a traveller is not undeceived, he and which is parallel with the great desert traversed by hastens his pace to reach it sooner; the more he ad. thie Israelites on the eastern side of that sea, he says, vances towards it, the more it recedes from him, till at “It is difficult to form a correct idea of a desert, with- last it vanishes entirely, and the deluded passenger out having been in one: it is an endless plain of sand often asks, where is the water he saw at no great disand stones, sometimes intermixed with inountains of all tance ? He can scarcely believe that he was sizes and heights, without roads or shelter, without any sort of produce for food. The few scattered trees and

deceived; he protests that he saw the waves running

before the wind, and the reflection of the high rocks in shrubs of thorns, that only appear when the rainy the water. season leaves sone moisture, barely serve to feed wild"If unfortunately any one falls sick on the road, animals, and a few birds. Every thing is left to nature; there is no alternative; he must endure the fatigue of the wandering inhabitants do not care to cultivate even travelling on a camel, which is troublesome even to these few plants, and when there is no more of them in healthy people, or he must be left behind on the sand, one place, they go to another. When these trees be

without any assistance, and remain so till a slow death come old and lose their vegetation, the sun, which con- comes to relieve him. What horror! What a brutal stantly beams upon them, burps and reduces them to

proceeding to an unfortunate sick man! No one reashes; I have seen many of thein entirely burnt. The mains with him, not even his old and faithful servant; other smaller plants have no sooner risen out of the earth than they are dried up, and all take the colour of straw,

no one will stay and die with him; all pity his fate,

but no one will be his companion.' with the exception of the plant harack ; this falls off Calamitous and liorrible as were the natural circunbefore it is dry.

stances of the country in which the Israelites were Generally speaking, in a desert, there are few

journeying, to ordinary travellers, yet they were daily s;rings of water, some of them at the distance of four, furnished with food and drink, both excellent and six, and eight days' journey from one another, and not abundant, by a constant miracle. They murmured and all of sweet water: on the contrary, it is generally salt rebelled against God, and his servant Moses: “Aud or bitter ; 60 that if the thirsty traveller drinks of it, the Lord sent fiery serpents among the people," &c. it increases his thirst, and he suffers more than before.

Dr. Gill, in his Commentary, remarks concerning But, when the calamity happens, that the next well, which is so anxiously sought for, is found dry, the

these serpents: "There were great numbers of them

in the deserts of Arabia, and about the Red Sea; but misery of such a situation cannot be well described. The.camels, which afford the only means of escape, are

hitherto the Israelites were protected from them by the

cloud about them; but sinning, the Lord suffered so thirsty, that they cannot proceed to another well : and, if the travellers kill them, to extract the little

them to come among them, to punish them. These liquid which remains in their stomachs, they themselves

are called fiery, either from their colour, as lianus

relates, to which the brazeu serpent, after made, bore cannot advance any farther. The situation must be some likeness; so there were others in the same parts dreadful, aud admits of no resource. Many perish, of Arabia of a red or scarlet colour, as Diodorus Siculus victims of the most horrible thirst. It is then that the value of a cup of water is really felt. He that has a

says, of a span long, and their bite entirely incurable:

or else they are so called from the effect of them, exEen cabia of it, is the richest of all. In such a case there is no distinction. If the paster has none, the

citing heat and thirst in those they bit; so Jarchi servant will not give it to him; for very few are the

says, they are so called because they burn with the instances, where a inan will voluntarily lose his life to

poison of their teeth. These very probably were fly. save that of another, particularly in a caravan in the

ing ones, as may seem from Isa. xiv, 29, and being desert, where people are strangers to each other.

sent of God, might come ilying among the people, and

bite them. What a situation for a man, though a rich one, perhaps

And such were in the fenny and marsby

parts of Arabia, of which many writers speak, as flying the owner of all the caravans! He is dying for a cup of from those parts into Egypt, where they used to be met water- no one gives it to him—he offers all he pos- by a bird called Ibis, which killed them, and for that sesses — no one hears him, they are all dying-though reason was had in great veneration by the Egyptians. by walking a few hours farther they might be saveil! Herodotus says they are nowhere but in Arabia ; and

was pre

also that they are of that kind of serpents, which are Jesus Christ (the most exceptionable that could pos. called Hydri; their wings are not feathered, but like sibly be chosen), and running the parallel, as some the wings of bats, and this Bochart takes to be here have done, through ten or a dozen of particulars ?meant. And they bit the people, and much people of This serpent of bruss, which God mercifully ordained Israel died : for, as before related froni Diodorus Sicu. as the means of recovery from the plague, lus, their bite was altogether incurable. And Solinus served as a inonument of the Divine mercy: but in says, of the same Arabian flying serpents, that their process of time became an instrument of idolatry. poison is so quick, that death follows before the pain When this superstition began, it is difficult to detercan be felt: and of that kind of serpent, the Hydrus, mine: but the best account is given by the Jewish it is said by Leo Africanus, that their poison is most per- rabbi, David Kimchi, in the following inanner : Froin nicious, and that there is no other reinedy against the bite the time that the kings of Israel did evil, and the of them, but to cut off that part of the member bitten, children of Israel followed idolatry, till the reign of before the poison can penetrate into the other parts of Hezekiah, they offered incense to it; for, it i eing the body. "The Dipsas, another kind of serpent, which written in the law of Moses, whoever looketh upon it others are of opinion is designed, by biting, brings im. shall live, they fancied they might obtain blessings by mediately a thirst on persons, intolerable, and almost its mediation; and therefore thought it worthy to be unextinguishable, and a deadly one, unless help is most worshipped. It had been kept from the days of Moses, speedily had : and if this was the case here, it was very in memory of a iniracle, in the saine manner as the pot bad indeed, since there was no water. Solinus says, of manna was : and Asa and Jehoshaphat did not extirthis kind of serpent kills with thirst. Aristotle speaks pate it when they rooted out idolatry, because in their of a serpent some call the sacred one, and that reign they did not observe that the people worshipped whatsoever it bites putrefies immediately all around it. this serpent, or burnt incense to it; and therefore

These serpents, and their bites, may be emblems they left it as a memorial. But Hezekiah thought fit of the old serpent, the devil, and of his fiery darts, to take it quite away, when he abolished other idolatry, and of sin brought in by him, and which he tempts because, in the time of his father, they adored it as an men unto: the effects of which are terrible and deadly, idol; and though pious people ainong them acconnted unless prevented by the grace of God."

it only as a memorial of a wonderful work, yet le Moses says, that “inuch people of Israel died.” judged it better to abolish it, though the memory of How long this dreadful scourge prevailed, and how the miracle should happen to be lost, than suffer it to long their miraculous supply of water was suspended, remain, and leave the Israelites in danger of coinmitwe are not informed; but probably not three days; ting idolatry hereafter with it.” and God, having brought the people to repentance, graciously afforded thein the means of obtaining a cure by miracle !

THE BEAUTIES OF CHRISTIANITY. Our blessed Lord refers to this in his conversation

(Continued from p. 307.) with Nicodemus, as affurding a striking illustration of his own work of redemption, and of the divine cure

On the Forms and Ceremonies of the Church. and spiritual salvation which sinners inay obtain by Let us now treat on the fuurth, and last, branch of looking to him.

our subject, the forins and worship of Christianity. Mr. T. H. Horne, in his valuable “Introduction to The conmon prayers of the church are admirable; it is the Study of the Scriptures,” remarks, “On the sub- only the habit of repetition that renders us insensible to ject of the serpent-bitten Israelites being healed by their excellencies. Where is there a profession of faith looking at the brazen serpent, there is a good comment so simple, pure, and luminous, as this : “I believe in in the Book of Wisdom, chap. xvi, 4—12, in which are one God, the Father Almighty, maker of heaven and these remarkable words : — They were admonished, earth, and of all things visible and invisible," &c. having a sign of salvation (i. e. the brazen serpent), to The Lord's prayer is the production of one who was put them in remembrance of the commandments of intimately acquainted with all our wants : “Our Father thy law. For he that turned himself towards it, was who art in heaven :” this is an invocation of our great not saved by the thing that he saw, but by Thee that art Creator, by the most endearing of all relations. “Halthe saviour of all.' (ver. 6, 7). To the circumstance of lowed be thy name, thy kingdom come.” May the looking at the brazen serpent in order to be healed, spirit of Christianity pervade the universe, and the our Lord refers (John iii, 14, 15), "As Moses lifted up glories of thy paradise succeed thy reign upon earth. the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of Thy will be done on earth, as it is in heaven : man be lifted up, that whosoever believeth in him, expression of pious resignation embraces the whole should not perish, but have eternal life :' from which

“Give us this day our daily bread":” how words we may learn, 1. That as the serpent was lifted impressive and philosophical! a little bread is the only up on the pole or ensign; so Jesus Christ was lifted up real want of man, and that required but for the day; on the cross. 2. That as the Israelites were to look at for will he be alive to-morrow? “And forgive us our the brazen serpent; so sinners inust look to Christ for trespasses, as we forgive them that trespass against us:" salvation. 3. That as God provided no other remedy a code of morality and charity comprised in the very than this looking, for the wounded Israelites; so he smallest compass. “And lead us not into temptation, has provided no other way of salvation than faith in the but deliver us from evil:” behold the human heart exblood of his Son. 4. That as he who looked at the posed without reserve! behold man and all his strength! brazen serpent was cured and did live; so he that Let him not ask to acquire wealth, or gratify ambition; believeth on the Lord Jesus Christ shall not perish, let him pray only that he may not be attacked and but have eternal life. 5. That as neither the serpent, overcome. Such is the Christian hero. None but the nor looking at it, but the invisible power of God, Author of human nature could be so thoroughly achealed the people; so neither the cross of Christ, por quainted with his work. his merely being crucified, but the pardon he has

The Sabbath. bought by his blood, communicated by the powerful energy of his Spirit, saves the souls of men. May not

This division of time is of the highest antiquity, and all these things be plainly seen in the circumstances of corresponds with that when the Creator rested from this transaction, without making the serpent a type of

his work. The infidel government of republican

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France, enıleatouring to uproot all religious institu- rest of mankind, and was the seal of the regeneration tions, changed the seventh into the tenth day; but of human nature. By charity it was that the apostles, terror, which was all powerful, never could compel after the example of their divine Master, so rapidly the peasant to observe the tenth day as a day of rest, won the hearts of their fellow-men, and so irresistibly lu cause the strength of man and of animals is inade- carried conviction home to their bosoms. The primitive quate to the exertion. The ox cannot labour nine suc- believers, instructed in this great virtue, formed a cessive days : at the end of the sixth, his lowing seems general fund for the relief of the poor, the sick, and to demand the hours marked by the Creator for the the traveller. This was the commencement of hospitals: general rest of nature. It is doubtless necessary that from that moinent works of beneficence had no bounds. man should have some recreation after his labours ; A flood of charity may be said to have burst upon the but as his leisure is beyond the reach of the civil law, before-unheeded wretched. It may be asked, how the to release him at that time from the influence of the ancients managed without hospitals? They had two religions law is to remove every curb on licentiousness. methods which Christians have not, to rid themselres It was to prevent this danger, that the ancients made of the unfortunate-infanticide and slavery. the day of rest a religious day, and Christianity conse- Those who represent Christianity as checking the crated the example.

advancement of learning, manifestly contradict all

historical evidence. In every country, civilization has The Funeral Service.

invariably been a consequence of the Gospel. The The last duty that we pay to our fellow.creatures reverse is the case with the religions of Mahomet, would be melancholy indeed, if not impressed with the Brahma, and Confucius : they have limited the intellecstamp of religion. Religion received birth at the tual progress of society, and made man grow old in the tombs, and it is right that the voice of hope should ignorance of society. Christianity preserved society issue from the grave, and that the priest of the living from total destruction by converting the barbarians, God shonld attend the remains of man to their Jast and by collecting the wrecks of civilization and the abode.

arts. Jesus Christ may, therefore, with strict truth, be Among the ancients, the remains of the indigent and denominated, in a material sense, that Saviour of the the slave were forsaken, almost without ceremony;

world which he is in a spiritual sense ; it was by his among us, the minister of the altar is bound to bestow gospel dispensation that the face of the world began the same attendance on the corpse of the peasant as of to be entirely changed. The precise time of his advent the monarch. Religion then forcibly impresses on us was truly remarkable : a little earlier, and the nations the conviction of an awful equality; the great name of

had been found upheld by their ancient laws; a little Christian, places all mankind upon a level in death. later, and society would have suffered shipwreck.

Among the Greeks and Romans, the vulgar dead St. Paul says, “When the fulness of time was come, were interred at the entrance of towns; tombs on the God sent his Son into the world." public roads are the genuine monuments of the pilgrim. The gospel has changed mankind in every point, Besides the ordinary places of sepulture, the monu

and enabled it to take an inmense step towards perfec. ments of persons of renown were erected on the sea tion. It is certain that the pagan nations were in a kind coast.

of moral infancy in comparison to ourselves. ChristiThe Chinese have an affecting custom; they inter anity is a religion congenial to the present age, as the their relatives in their gardens : it is soothing to have reign of types and enriblems was suited to the cradle of some memorials of the friends who are gone before us. Israel. The truths of Christianity, far from requiring In speaking of the sepulchre of our religion, we fee) the submission of our reason, command, on the conthat only this is truly worthy of man. The monument

trary, its most sublime exercise. of the heathen speaks only of the past; the Christian, With respect to the morality of the gospel, its beauty of the future; thus with respect to burial places, it is universally admitted ; the more it is known and commits the ashes of the faithful to the protection of practised, the more the eyes of men will be opened to the temples of the Lord, and deposits the dead in the their real happiness. • A little philosophy,” say: house of the Living God.

Bacon, “ withdraws us from religion, but a good deal

of philosophy brings us back again; no one denies the Surrey of Missions.

existence of a God, but he who has reason to wish that Here is another of those grand, original ideas, which there were none.” Rousseau says, “Religion bas imbelong exclusively to the Christian religion. The parted softness and benignity to our manners and cusidolatrous nations knew nothing of that divine enthu- toms : what numberless works of mercy have been prosiasm, which animates the apostle of the gospel; the duced by the gospel!”. The more, in fact, that we ancient sages never quitted their pleasure to go and examine Christianity, the more it stands the test of civilize the savage, instruct the ignorant, heal the sick, reason, the more we discover its grandeur. Its

mysor relieve the distressed; but this is what Christians teries explain man and nature, its actions support its have done, and still are doing every day. Not an island, precepts, we are indebted to it for every thing : it is not a rock in the ocean, has escaped ; and as of old, the the religion of a free people, for it instils into us a kingdoms of the earth were inadequate to the ambition consciousness of the dignity of our nature, it coupects of the Macedonian monarch, so the globe itself is too morality with religion, and man with God. Were you contracted for their charity.

even to divest it of its supernatural evidences, there

would be sufficient left in the sublimity of its morality, General Summary.

and in the immensity of its benefits, to prove it to be To have only a superficial acquaintance with the the inosi divine and pure religion ever practised by benefits conferred by Christianity, would, in fact, be to man. Finally, framed for our afflictions and our wants, know nothing on the subject; it is into the minute the Christian religion ever exhibits to our view the details of those benefits, into the ingenuity with which twofold picture of terrestial griefs and heavenly joys, religion baz varied her gifts, dispensed her succours, it proves a real balsam for our wounds, it lulls our distributed her treasures and her remedies, that we woes, and sheds around us peace, teaching mau to look ought to penetrate. Charity, an absolutely Christian upon himself as no more than a pilgrim travelling virtue, originated in Jesus Christ; it was his virtue through a vale of tears, and finding no repose till he that principally distinguished himn, as a man, from the reaches the tomb as the entrance to heaven.

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THE DAY OF ATONEMENT AMONG THE

dual apart, having his face turned to the east, where

once stood the teinple, in accordance with the prayer of MODERN JEWS.

King Solomon, at its dedication. During this prayer,

they beat twice on their breast, saying, “We have According to the predictions of Moses and the suc. sinned, we have greatly sinned.” What a striking ceeding Hebrew prophets, the Israelites have been affinity is there between this and the “ Mea Culpa, scattered among all nations. They are still preserved, Mea Maxima Culpa” of the Romish worship! and the by the marvellous providence of God, a separate and service of each, is in a language not in coinmon use. distinct people, a living monument of the superintend- Except in reciting the above prayer, the manner of ing government of the Almighty, and an incontroverti. Jewish worship is careless and apathetic ; between the hle proof of the truth and divinity of the Holy Scrip- responses they converse freely, break off to respond, tures, and of Christianity. These people still abide as and again resume their discourse. This is the less to Hosea foretold, —“ without a king, and without a be wondered at, when it is recollected, that the service prince, and without a sacrifice, and without an image, is performed in a language only known to the learned. and without an ephod, and without teraphim." Chap. Most Jews can read Hebrew, and recite their prayers ii, 4.

in it, but this they do mechanically, and without any The Divine purpose is, however (and the state of consciousness of what they repeat, parrot-like, by rote. that scattered nation manifestly illustrates that immuta- They have no sermon, excepting two in each year, on Wle decree), that the people of Israel shall be restored. the sabbath in the passover week, called the great sab“ Blindness in part is happened to Israel, until the bath, and the first sabbath in the new year. These fulness of the Gentiles be come in. And so all Israel discourses are delivered in Hebrew, by the presiding shall be saved : as it is written, There shall come out Rabbi, and are logical compositions, on moral subjects. of Sion the Deliverer, and shall turn away ungodliness The synagogues are crowded to excess at these times, from Jacob.” Rom. xi, 25, 26. The Christian apostle and the Rabbi stands on a raised seat, placed in front speaks in harmony with the Israelitish prophet- of the veil, while speaking, but he is only understood by Afterward shall the children of Israel return, and the learned part of his auditory! seek the Lord their God, and David their king; and “The veil of the synagogue is white, on the new year, fear the Lord and his goodness in the latter days.” and day of atonement. At all other times it is a splenHosea jii, 5.

didly ornamented one. The rolls of the law, veil, &c. Though the Jews can no longer observe the ceremo- are presents from devout Jews; and at solemn festivals, nies of their ancient institutions as they were appointed, when prayers are offered up for the souls of the they observe the days and times which were divinely dead, departed benefactors to the synagogue are not ordained. The daily service which the modern Jews onnitted." Einma de Lissau, vol. i, p. 258, 259. read in their synagogues, on the Day of ATONEMENT, “ The Shemonal Essra for the Day of Atonement, as instead of offering sacrifices, is truly instructive; but said Evening, Morning, and Afternoon,” contained in its great length will not permit jts insertion here. the “ Daily Prayers of the Jews,” translated, we recomThe following is the nanner of the Jewish worship, mend to the notice of such of our readers as may have as described by EMMA DE Lissau, in the first volume access to that manual of their devotions. of her interesting work. Synagogue worship is always performed in He

The THIRTEEN CREEDS OF The Jews. brew. On Monday and Thursday, the law is read, and

Christians entertain many mistakes relating to the ou the Sabbath and all festivals. The reading desk is

descendants of the ancient people of God. Probably placed in the centre of the Synagogue, and the reader,

their most venerated form of Belief will be read with and his attendant singers, stand with their faces interest by many of the subscribers to the Christian's lowards the veil that conceals the ark or chest, where Penny Magazine, and we therefore insert it for their are deposited the scrolls of the law, crowned, and in

cdification. the richly embroidered covers to which are attached ). I believe with a perfect faith, that the Creator, small silver bells and ornaments. Reading, and even blessed be his name, that he is the guide and creator touching these scrolls are productive of emolument to to all the creations; and that he alone hath made, doth the revenue of the Synagogue, and form no inconside- inake, and ever will make all productions. rable part of it. Withdrawing the veil-taking the 11. I believe with a perfect faith, that the Creator, Jaw from the depository behind it-carrying it to the blessed be his name, is a unity, and that there is no desk-reading a verse from it aloud-holding up the unity in any manner whatsoever like unto his unity; open scroll to the view of the people-returning it to and that he alone is our God, who was, is, and ever will its place-all these are acts of worship, and being deemed meritorious, are put up for sale at the reading III. I believe with a perfect faith, that the Creator, desk, and awarded to the highest bidder. At high blessed be his name, is not corporeal, and that there festivals, such as the New Year, Day of Atonement, appertaineth not to him any corporeal essence, and Tabernacles, and Feast of Weeks, large sums are given that there is no likeness to him whatever. for these privileges. Marks placed in the synagogue

IV. I believe with a perfect faith, that the Creator, book, on the reading desk, are fixed to the names of blessed be his name, is the first and the last. the purchasers, and the amount is added to their yearly V. I believe with a perfect faith, that the Creator, bills, which are always regularly discharged. They blessed be his name, he alone is worthy to be wors also pay for their seats, which are made to open for shipped, and there is none besides him worthy to be the reception of their books, synagogue veil, &c. worshipped.

Those who occupy the reading desk, and all persons VI. I believe with a perfect faith, that all the words ascending it, in consequence of having purchased that of the prophets are true. right, wear the veil, or garment of fringes, burdered vii.' I believe with a perfect faith, that the prophecy with blue, and formed like a scarf, and a three-cornered of Moses our instructor (peace be to him) was faithful; hat. Prayers are read, by the reader appointed, and and that he was the master of all the wise men, that responded to by the congregation ; but the most solemn preceded him, and have succeeded him. prayer of the Jews, called the prayer of eighteen bless- VIII. I believe with a perfect faith, that all the law ings, is recited devoutly in a low tone, by each indivi. which is found present in our possession, is that

be.

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