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tion to Jesus Christ, is no more to be owned; but so it is, the king's authority is now such, therefore it ought not to be owned. 3. Whether the killing of the arch. bishop of St Andrews was murder, yea, or not? Answered, that he thought it no fin to dispatch a bloody monAter. 4. If he owned the new covenant taken at the Queensferry, from Mr Cargil one of their preachers ? Answered, that he did own it in every particular there. of, and would fain see the man that in conscience and reason would debate the contrary. 5. If he were at li. berty, and had the power to kill any of the king's coun. cil, and.murder them as he did the bishop of St Andrews, whether he would do it, yea, or not? Answered, that he had no spare time to anfwer such frivolous and childith questions.

The chancellor told him, that if he were not more ingenuous in his answers, he would presently be tortured. He answered, that is but a little addition to your former cruelties, and I have that comfort, that though you torture my wounded body, yet ye cannot reach my soul. The chancellor urged him with several other questions, which he refused to answer. But, said he, I would gladly speak a little if I could have liberty, which was allowed him. Then he said, Ye know that youth is a folly, and I acknowledge, that in my younger years I Was too much carried down with the fpait of it; but that inexhaustible fountain of the goodness and grace of God, which is free and great, hath reclaimed me, and as a fire-brand hath plucked me out of the claws of Satan; and now I stand here before you as a prisoner of Jesus Chrift, for adhering to his cause and interest, which hath 'been sealed with the blood of many worthies, who have fuffered in these lands, and have witnessed to the truths of Christ these few years bygone, and I do own all the testimonies given by them, and desire to put in my mite among theirs, and am not only willing to feal it with my blood, but also with the sharpest tortures that you can imagine. Then being interrogate by the bishop of Edinburgh, what he would answer to that article of the Confeffion of Faith, that difference of religion doth not make void the magistrate's right and authority? He anwered, he would not answer any perjured prelate: The bishop replied, he was in the wrong to him, because he never took the covenant, therefore he was not perjured,


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and so deserved not that name. But some of them alk. ed him, how he would answer that question ? He answer. ed, that question was answered long ago by the folemn league and covenant, which binds us only to maintain and defend the king in the defence of the true religion ; but now the king having stated himself an enemy to religion, and all that will live religiously, therefore it is high time to shake off all obligation of allegiance to hi authority. Next day they asked if he had any more to say? He answered, that which he had to say was said already in every particular thereof; and, faid he, I will not only feal it with my blood, but with all the-tortures ye can imagine.

Follows the extract of the proceedings of the privy coun.

cil, Edinburgh, July 29. 1680.

N presence of the Lords Justiciary, clerk and com-

millioners of Justiciary, compeared David Hackstoun of Rathillet, and declines the king's Majesty's authority, the authority of the commissioners of Justiciary as his judges, and absolutely refuses to sign this declaration, as being before persons who are not his judges. He refufes to answer concerning the murder of the late bishop of St Andrews, and says, the clauses of his declinement, are, because they have usurped the supremacy over the church, belonging alone to Jesus Christ, and have established idolatry, perjury, and other iniquities; and in prosecuting their design, in confirming themselves in this usurped right, have shed much innocent blood. Therefore the said David, adhering to Christ, his rights, and kingly office over the church, declines them that are his open enemies and competitors for his crown and power, as competent judges ; refuses, as formerly, to sign this his declaration, dated from his own mouth; whereupon his majesty's advocate takes instruments, and requires the commissioners of justiciary to fign the same in his presence, as for him; and his majesty's advocate takes instruments, that the said David has declined his majesty's authority, and the authority of his commiffioners, and refused to deny the murder of the late bishop of St Andrews, and requires Melrs John Vas, James Balfour, and the men of the court witnesses to the forefaid de. caration. Sic fubfcribitur, Sir Robert Maitland, James


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Foulis, David Balfour, David Falconer, Rodger Hodge.

Upon Friday, July 30 Being again brought before the council, it was asked of him if he had any other thing to say? He answered, that which I have said I will feal it. Then they told him, they had something to say to him; and commanded him to sit down and receive his sentence; which willingly he did, but.told them they were all bloody murderers, for all the power they had was derived from tyranny; and that these years bygone they have not only tyrannized over the church of God, but have also grinded the faces of the poor, so that oppressions, bloodshed, perjury, and many murders were to be found in their skirts. Upon which he was inconti. nent carried away to the scaffold, at the market-cross of Edinburgh, where he died with great torture indicted upon his body, not being permitted to leave any teftimo. ny to the world, except what is comprehended in these millives directed to some of his christian acquaintances, from his prison in the tolbooth of Edinburgh ; which are as follows.


The copy of a letter written by David Hackstoun of

Ratbillet, to his Christian Friend N. Dated from the
tolbooth of Edinburgh, July 26. 1680.
Dear acquaintance,

KNOW, this late dispensation of providence will oc-
Lord's truth, now in this day, when so few, by their
practice, prove themselves to be zealous for God, or
lovers of his iruth; but instead of that growth in the
graces of God's fpirit, and steadfastness which should be
in christians, have made defection from the truth, and
are fallen from their first love, to the strengthening the
bands of ufurpers of the crown of Christ, in their unlaw-
ful encroachments on the privileges of the Son of God.
Wherefore I intreat you, and all others, as you would
not offend God, and provoke him to more anger, do not
murmur, but bless and praise him, and submit to him
in all humility; for if this be one of the steps of Zion's
deliverance, and God's glory, why should not we praise
him for every thing? If we had the manner of our de
livery at our carving, we would spoil it. He is the wif-
dom of the Father, who fits at the helm and orders all


affairs. The faith of this would filence all suggestions from Satan, our own hearts, and misbelief. I defire you would discharge all that have love or affection to me, not to be fad on my account, but rather to rejoice on my be. half, that God hath fo honoured mein all I have been tryit. ed with : For as he took me, when I was a slave to Satan, and fin, and cast his love upon me, and plucked me as a brand out of the fire, and brought me into covenant with him, to promote and carry forward his work, without fear of what man can do unto me; and as he helped me to make the bargain with him upon good terms, which was a renouncing of my own strength, and a resolution to do all in his strength ; so now he hath been faithful in all things to me, and hath furnished me sufficiently for what he hath called me to, and hath passed by my many gross failings and breaches of my conditions to him, and hath done to me above what I could ask of him. O that I could commend him to all, and stir up all to fear, and believe on him ! But the lukewarmness and want of love to God, and indifferency in Chrift's matters, and neutrality in these things are come to so great a height among professors, that, I think, God is laying a stumbling-block before them, that when they are fallen he may be glorified in his justice, by bringing that stroke of vengeance that seems to be hanging over these lands, because of their fearful idolatry, perjury, bloodshed, blafphemy, and other abominations, the whole land is, this day, guilty of. "Lord grant repentance, and a fpirit of mourning; brokenness and contrition of spirit is the only facrifice well-pleasing unto God. First our representatives, established these fins, in our national de. crees, which we have homologate in owning them ever after, and much more have we homologate their fins, in contributing to the strengethning of their hands against God, as alas, but few be free of this, this day! O that preachers would preach repentance, and professors would exhort one another to mourn, in secret, and together, because of fin ; and with their mourning would believe, for these are very consistent together. I find Aesh and , blood great enemies to faith, and friends, yea, fosterers of sinful fears. It is above nature to believe, especially when dispensations seem to contradict our faith : but if any had faith towards God concerning me, let not chis. brangle their faith, but rather ftrengthen; there is no

thing can contradict what God hath determined ; but over all opposition he will perfect his work in and by mea as he fees most for his own glory.

Wherefore let us submit to his will, and lie before the throne in behalf of Zion and her children ; and O! that you yourself would, and desire others that are faithful, to hold up my case to Zion's God, that he would glorify himself in me ; and let your prayers be in faith ; To him that believeth, all things are poflible. There are many feckless prayers, that prevail not with God because of unbelief." I know, thefe fufferings will be a great stumbling to many, but let it not be to you : 1 bless the Lord, it is not so to me, but rather the power, yea, the love of God to me ; for it was not altogether unexpected unto me: For I cannot deny, but it was over the belly of conscience, that I joined with some of our party ; for some of them had not their garments clean of the late defections, and there was too much pride amongst us : Neither dare I allow that taking of satisfaction for practices which are the homologating of the public fins, which we did about half an hour before our break; which checked me exceedingly in the time. I think, real forrow would make men think themselves not worthy to be employed in that work; real evidences of reconciliation with God should be seen before admission to such an employment. O that all would take warning, not to venture to follow any man over conscience! There were choice godly men among us, but one Achan will make Ifrael to fall.

I fear th want of faith among us, all alongst our late business : I know, many mouths will be opened against me because of what I did before this business, but I dare not but speak it, this is a stumblingblock laid to drive them to more fin; and alas ! that I did not more to purge us of every sin, especially known sin among us.

And now, knowing ye will be anxious to know how it was then, and how it hath been since with me; First, we getting notice of a party out seeking us, sent two on Wednesday night late to know their motion, and lay on a muir-side all night; and Thursday about ten hours we went to take some meat, and sent out other two, and desired them to consult with the first two, who had not come to us, but were lying down to sleep, who all four returned and told us, it was unnecessary to send any for


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