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men of their acquaintance are dazzled and confounded, to the infinite satisfaction of the father and mother, at the manners of their daughter: but any sensible young man, who expects to get his own living, knows better than to choose her for a wife. Generally some wondering farmer's son is attracted by her charms, and actually half dies in love for her: at length he ventures to disclose his passion: he is then either indignantly refused, or if he or a tradesman of similar taste should succeed, then is there no need of a conjurer's sagacity to foresee the result.

In this case, the girl and her parents are actuated by the love of his wealth or likelihood to do well; but his wife, helpless, ignorant of all that can tend to his happiness, expensive and affected, secretly reflects on the sacrifice she has made, learns to think of her husband with a benevolent pity, discloses to her intimate friend that he is really a good kind of man, though not the most elegant and informed in the world, whom she loves quite well enough to make very comfortable! Not unfrequently the comfort spoken of comes to, the ruin and poverty of all parties. If not, then in their own family, you may see in the bedizened girls and the affectation of the mother, continued through life, the genuine effects of the system. Not unfrequently do the grossest quarrels ensue, when the wife is sure to remind her husband of her superiority, and what a sacrifice it was for a girl of her education to marry him. Very often, however, there is no wondering clown or bewildered tradesman at hand, and the young lady passes her days in single blessedness, like "the cowslip growing upon the rock, alone, and mildly smiling," and retaining notions of her superiority throughout her existence; or more probably turning shrew, and despising her neighbours and hating the human race; and not unfrequently compelled by the mutation of circumstances to accept some situation, whose duties cause her acquired notions to constitute the perpetual source of chagrin.

These are the ill effects of the disproportion of female education to prospects and circumstances in one instance, and in one walk of human life; but the consequences are similar under every variety. The differences between the various grades of society are so little, as to occasion that, even in the very highest and the very lowest, the qualities in the female essential to domestic happiness inust be nearly the same.—I am, dear Madam, yours, &c. CLERICUS.


II. REVERENCE. The love which has already been described, will be found to be quite consistent with that reverential feeling, so necessary to be entertained towards God, and the reasons for which I will now endeavour to explain.

1. Because he is the source of all existence. From the throne of his High Majesty, he contemplates the children of men; and, behold! they are as grasshoppers in his sight. A word from him is of sufficient power to call into existence every variety of human life; and every possible organization of matter. On what side soever we turn our eyes, subjects present themselves to convince us of the all-prevailing energy of Him whose wondrous works in the creation are thus described in Holy Writ: "He spake, and it was done." All that we see around us proclaims, that while infinite benevolence has induced the Creator to make his dwelling-place with the children of men, yet that he has been willing to show that infinite power is necessary to form a place wherein the operations of Deity shall be seen,


thou that little insect? Mark the elaborate care and skill with which each tiny portion of its fabric is adjusted, and how marvellously every part of the body is qualified to perform the office which its Creator has designed it for. Look again at that huge animal, the lash of whose tail causes commotions in the mighty waters-no less wisdom and power is displayed in its formation. Cast thy eyes over the blooming landscape before thee, and as thou admirest the green verdure of that carpet which is spread over the earth, and the graceful and blooming aspect of the trees, and the still and gentle meandering of the stream, and the joyous carol of the birds, and the lowing of the oxen, and the bleating of the sheep; think of Him who is the Author of them all and (if thou canst) contemplate the wondrous mechanism which is contained in the earth, to produce effects which would strike man dumb with reverence for their Maker, if it were not for the repetition of them which everywhere abounds, and which, while it does in fact more elevate the Almighty, still makes men regardless and unconcerned.

2. But there is a method whereby I think we may gain still more abundant reasons for reverence; and that is, by removing our attention from the general view of the subject, and fixing it upon the particular; or, in other words, by regarding God as our Creator. There is at all times a great degree of reverence felt to be due to those who have rightful authority over us, and still more so when that authority is derived from some nearness of connection existing between the parties. We look, or at least ought to look, with reverence to our parents; and when we remember that the express command of God enforces this duty, we shall be prepared for the argument adopted by the apostle, that if such reverence was due to our earthly parents, who like ourselves were liable to err, who were interested in the mode of conduct pursued towards them, and who for a short time only exercised this authority; we should much rather be in subject to the great Father of all, who only could claim absolute dominion over us. Let therefore the poorest and the meanest; those whom rank has not elevated to notice among their fellow-men, and for whom fortune has not spread a bed of roses; rejoice in the cheering announcement, which bids them regard the God of heaven as their Father, and let each one for himself apply to his own heart the pleasing intelligence, and look up to heaven with the eye of faith, exclaiming, "Doubtless thou art our Father, though Abraham be ignorant of us."

3. There is also another character in which we are bound to view God, and the effect of which upon the mind of every reflecting man must be to produce sentiments of the deepest reverence. A day is yet to come, and (if the records of prophecy may be relied on) at no distant period, when the unnumbered tribes of earth shall stand in one vast assemblage before the judgment-seat of Christ. Undisguised by the distinction which rank has conferred upon him, and unconcealed because of the obscurity and lowness of his station, shall each man appear at that tribunal. Can we then view with feelings of unconcern the character of Him who is to decide our future destiny, and fix us for ever in realms of never-fading joy, or in regions where no gleam of hope can come? Were it our lot on earth to be placed in similar circumstances with our fellow-creature, we should feel deeply interested in knowing what his disposition would most likely be towards us. Shall we then be less anxious concerning that which is incalculably more important? Children of men, are ye not deceiving yourselves? Are ye not acting a part quite inconsistent with the wisdom and foresight ye are apt to manifest in worldly things? Are ye unmoved at the idea of appearing naked

and alone, at the bar of one who knows every secret of your heart, and will not fail to unravel that which you thought too securely concealed for any power to comprehend? Fear ye not me ? saith the Lord. Will ye not tremble at my coming? Letnot, however, the Christian be dismayed at such announcements: to him they have no terror. What though the Lord shall come, and all his holy angels with him; and what if the earth shall be destroyed, and every vestige of human greatness crumble into nothingness: what though the blast of the archangel's trumpet shall awake the sleeping myriads whose bones lie mouldering in the tomb! Is there in this more than we expect? Have not all the promises of the gospel reference to this? And can we think that the word of Jesus shall be broken, or a declaration that has proceeded from his mouth fail of effect? He has promised to protect his saints, and therefore, though you cannot fail to view him with reverence in his high character as Judge of quick and dead; yet forget not that he is the Saviour, and has now gone into heaven, to prepare for you a mansion that shall never be moved.

III. RESIGNATION. It cannot be doubted that this is most difficult to practise, since we are often placed in circumstances of a trying and most distressful nature. It is hard to see our friends drop one by one into the grave, our fortunes decay, our hopes wither, and our health decline; and yet believe that infinite mercy superintends it all. But so in truth it is: the trials of this life must be borne; murmuring does not remove them : and since he who believes them to be the work of God is best able to bear up under them, let each one of us resolve to adopt this wisest course whenever we are oppressed or afflicted. But it must be borne in mind that resignation means more than submission: it means more than restraining complaints, for that may be forced upon us by the consideration of their uselessness; and it remains only for me therefore to describe the constituent parts of this most excellent disposition.

1. We must feel assured of the wisdom of our Governor. Our bounded view sees only a little way, and we imagine that many of the sorrows of life might be spared. But never let it be forgotten, that God knows the end from the beginning: that no circumstances can mislead, no difficulties be too great for his overruling providence. Left to our own direction, we should adopt many a foolish plan, and pursue many a hurtful course of conduct; but under his protection we are safe. Let then experience of the past afford a firm basis for resignation in the future. The history of those who have gone before us has shown (imperfectly indeed), that the hand which guided them through this weary pilgrimage, acted upon principles and from motives of the most exalted nature, and therefore, that since He fainteth not, neither is weary, the same may be believed of our own condition. The future world, to which we are hastening, will remove all our doubts upon the subject.

2. Let us confide in his paternal care. The ruler of the universe is not indifferent to the welfare of the meanest of his subjects, but feels for each an affection, far exceeding that which earthly parents bear towards their children. Oh! I am sure we overlook these declarations of scripture, and too often view God rather in a repulsive than an attractive character. But this is not just; this is not acting with becoming confidence in one who has left no means untried to convince us of his tenderness. Henceforth, therefore, let us go forth into the scenes of life in humble trust and confidence in him: let us feel assured, that under all circumstances his eye is fixed upon us; and let us banish for ever the unwarrantable fear, that he can have any purpose con

cerning us inconsistent with his character of Father. And till we can believe that a parent can calmly sit down, contemplate the future misery of his child, and adopt methods of reducing him to hopeless wretchedness, and yet be called a loving parent: let us cast from us as unworthy of being entertained for one moment any suspicion, that our heavenly Father is unmindful of our welfare, and careless of our sufferings.

3. Let us believe in his power. The unhappy worldling can never accuse God for his distress, seeing that God has never said that happiness shall be our lot on earth. But he has bid us anticipate a future state where unmixed joy shall reign for ever. View, therefore, this world as a state of probation; all the circumstances of which are intended by the Almighty to render us more qualified for that future service which he designs that we shall render to him. Instead therefore of grieving at distress, let us view it as a fresh testimony of the brightness of our future crown; and though even an inspired apostle could not deny, that now, no trouble seems joyous but grievous, yet he felt himself bound to declare, that every thing we had to endure was working out for us a far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory.

Thus have I drawn my subject to a close, under the perfect conviction, that Universal Resignation to the will of God is the greatest and most desirable of objects. And acting on this principle, it shall yet be the lot of each to meet their Christian friends in an eternal world of joy and peace. And oh! how far would it exceed my most sanguine expectations, if in those realms of glory I should meet with one, whom my feeble efforts had induced to say, "This God is my God for ever and ever, he shall be my guide unto death." Amen. B. Z.

Death-Bed Testimonies.



Rector of St. Ann's, Blackfriars, London. Died July 26th, 1795, aged 81.

On Friday, June 5th, 1795, calling on an intimate friend, as soon as seated, he said, without any introduction, "Set thine house in order, for thou shalt die, und not live." His friend asked him if had any particular meaning in reciting this Scripture. He said, "No; but these words are much impressed on my mind, and they are a proper admonition to us all." He slept that night at the house of Mr. W


at Balaam Hill.

At six o'clock next morning he came down to breakfast, presided as usual in family devotion, and prayed earnestly, that "God would fit them for, and support them in all the trials of that day, which might be many." After breakfast, being about to return to London to prepare for the service of the next day, he was suddenly taken ill, but not so much indisposed as to prevent his immediate return to town. On his way, he conversed very profitably, and with pleasure and energy, on the approach of death, and the near prospect of eternity, and said, “Oh! how animating is the view I now have of death, and the hope which is laid up for me in heaven, full of glory and immortality."

As soon as taken ill, though sensible it was for death, there was that sweet reliance upon the promise and truth of God, the necessity of which he had so often inculcated, Hence arose that remarkable patience,


that not one fretful or murmuring word ever escaped his lips, His only companion was his Hebrew Psalter, which lay ever before him, and out of which he frequently read a verse or two, not being able to attend to more. The nature of his disorder was such that he could speak but little; and being asked if he would see some company, he replied, "I need no better company than 1 enjoy." At various times he was asked how he was: "As well as I can be on this side heaven," was his general answer. Once he replied to the same question, "As well as possible while in this vile body, which plagues and torments me." A few days after his seizure, he said to those about him, "You are taking inuch pains to prop up this feeble body: I thank you for it, but it will not do now." At another time, when in one of his lowest frames, being asked if God was with him; he replied, "Yes, he is indeed, and he is my God." To another friend he observed, respecting the weakness of his body, “It is all mercy, all mercy.' person calling upon business, he took the opportunity of saying, he hoped he was better, and happy in his views. "Yes," replied he, "upon that point I have no doubt, for I have much of the presence of Jesus with me.” To a brother in the ministry, who came to see him in his journey through London, he said, "I do not repent of one word that I have ever printed or preached on faith in Jesus, for I now feel the blessed comforts of that precious doctrine." Another time he said, "I have been in deep waters, but I have enjoyed much comfort." After having been from home, upon his return, Mr. Goode visited him, and found him a little revived; to whom he said, "I have lain long in the arms of death, and if recovering, it is very slowly; but this is but a poor dying life at best; however, I am in His hands who will do the best for me," and added with peculiar energy, "I am sure of that: I have lived to experience all I have spoken, and all I have written, and I bless God for it." To another friend he said, "I have the peace of God in my conscience, and the love of God in my heart; and that, you know, is sound experience." And again, "I knew the doctrines I preached to be truth, and now I experience them to be blessings." He had been accustomed to say in health, “I desire to die with the language of the publican on my lips, 'God be merciful to me a sinner."" In this his desire was fulfilled; for to an acquaintance he said, "I thank you for coming to see a saved sinner." When he again left town, his strength rapidly decayed; but now, as his outward man perished, his inward man was renewed day by day. A friend admiring his patience in his weak state, quoted that scripture, “My soul is as a weaned child." He replied, “A child is sometimes cross when weaning," to which Mrs. Romaine said, "Yes, but when weaned it is quiet;" thereby intimating he had fully proved he was a weaned child.


A few mornings before his death, he read in family worship the chapter which records Hezekiah's sickness, and said, "Now I should have none of this weakness and languishing if I had no sin; but God be thanked for hope in death, yea, for life in death."

On the 23d of July, as he was at breakfast, he said, "It is now sixty years since God opened my mouth to publish the everlasting sufficiency and eternal glory of the salvation of Christ Jesus; and it has now pleased him to shut my mouth, that my heart might feel and experience what my mouth has so often spoken."

The next day, after being helped down stairs, he said, "() how good is God! what a good night he has favoured me with! O what a blessed prospect I now see before me;" requesting, as he had often done, that prayer without ceasing might be made for him, that his faith and patience might not fail. Mrs. R. coming in, said, "I hope, my dear, you now find God your support,

and his promises of life in Christ Jesus your comfort." "Yes," he replied, "now, when my heart, my flesh, and strength fail, my God is the strength of my heart and my portion for ever." He then spoke to her in language expressive of the most tender affection, and thanking her for all her care of him, said, "Come, my love, that I may bless you. The Lord be with you, a covenant God for ever, to save and bless you." He spoke with the same tenderness and affection to his son. The lady of the house on hearing this said,



Have you

not a blessing for me, Sir? "Yes," said he, "I have, pray God to bless you,” ," and so he said to every one that came to him. The night following, he was rather restless, and in the morning was not able to come down stairs. His friend returned from town about three o'clock, and went up to ask him how he did; he answered, Very well, I am glad to see you." He then shook hands with him, and said, "Are you going to town again?" "No," replied his friend, "I am come to pray to God to bless you now with the comforts of his sweet salvation, and to give you the blessed possession and enjoyment of life everlasting." Upon which he cried out with solemnity, earnestness, and delight, "Amen! Amen! Amen!"

About an hour before he died, his friend and host went up to him, and said, "I hope, Sir, you now find the salvation of Jesus Christ precious to you." He replied, "Yes, yes, yes; he is precious to my soul." "More precious than rubies," said his friend. "Yes, yes, yes; all that can be desired is not to be compared to him." Now," added his friend, "He is the chiefest of ten thousand." Yes, yes; A TREE OF LIFE." The last words he was heard to utter were "HOLY, HOLY, HOLY, BLESSED JESUS, TO THEE BE ENDLESS PRAISE!"

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No. VI of "British Ecclesiastical History" appeared on the 1st of the present month: we recommend it to all our readers who wish to become acquainted with the history of the Church of Christ in their own country. The present Number contains the progress of the "Reformation," as far as the persecution of the Reformers by the blinded and bigoted Mary.

London: Printed and Published by C. WOOD AND SON, Poppin's Court, Fleet Street; to whom all Communications for the Editor (post_paid) should be addressed; and sold by all Booksellers and Newsinen in the United Kingdom.

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No 81.

DECEMBER 21, 1833.



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LONDON being the metropolis of the most powerful empire on earth, and the greatest mart of trade in the world, must needs have public offices corresponding with its political importance, and the magnitude of its vast business. Some of these, particularly the BANK OF ENGLAND, and the TOWER, have already been described to the readers of the Christian's Penny Magazine, with notices of their connection with the preservation or promotion of religion.

GUILDHALL, the hall of the corporation, so called from the old Saxon word guildscip, signifying corpora


tion, is appropriated to the chief public offices of the city of London. Here the large public meetings of the city are held, the lord mayor chosen, and the inembers for the representation of the city in parliament. Before the erection of this building, the Court Hall, or Bury, as it was called, was held in Alderman-bury, so denominated from the place of meeting of the city senators, or aldermen. Guildhall was commenced in the year 1411, and completed in 1432, erected partly by voluntary contributions, and partly by sums raised for pardons of offenders, and by fines. Guildhall was so

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injured by the Great Fire of London in 1666, that it was necessary to rebuild it, and the whole was completed in three years.

Besides the Hall, there are included in this building, the Chamberlain's Office, the Court of King's Bench, in which the Lord Mayor's Court, and Sessions of the Peace of the City, are held, a Court of Common Pleas, a Court of Exchequer, and a court called the Cominon Council Chamber, for the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Common Councilmen.

The principal Hall is 153 feet long, 48 feet broad, and 55 feet in height, adorned with splendid marble monuments in honour of Mr. Beckford, the Earl of Chatham, Lord Viscount Nelson, and the late Mr. Pitt. Besides these, and the gorgeous grotesque figures of GOG and MAGOG, there are portraits of our judges, who frequently tried causes under this roof. "I may direct the reader's attention," says Pennant, in his "History of London," to twelve of that order of peculiar merit : these are the portraits of the able and virtuous SIR MATTHEW HALE, and his eleven contemporary judges, who, after the dreadful fire of 1666, regulated the building of the city of London, by such wise rules, as to prevent the endless vexations and law suits which might ensue, and been little less chargeable than the fire itself had been. This was principally owing to Sir Mathew Hale, who conducted the business, and sat with his brethren in Clifford's Inn, to compose all differences between landlord and tenant."


Scarcely any subject has occasioned so much conversation, in connection with Guildhall, as the sumptuous Feasts: a few observations on this topic may be made edifying even to Christian readers: two especially, which will excite considerable interest, one relating to that of the last popish archbishop of Canterbury; and the other, that which was given to the Allied Sovereigns and the Prince Regent, in 1814.

Pennant informs us, "The first time that this hall was used on festive occasions, was by Sir John Shaw, goldsmith, knighted in the field of Bosworth. After building the essentials of good kitchens and other offices, in the year 1500, he gave here the Mayor's feast, which before had usually been done in Grocers' Hall. They at length grew to such excess, that, in the time of Philip and Mary, a sumptuary law was made to restrain the expenses both of provisions and live



From the same author we learn, that in the enthronization feast of archbishop Warham, in March, 1504, the first course was preceded by a warner, conveyed upon a rounde boorde of viii panes, with viii towres ein battled and made with flowres, standynge on every towre a bedil in his habite, with his staffe: and in the same boorde, first the kyng syttinge in his parliament, with his lordes about hym in their robes, and Saint Wylliam, lyke an archbishop, syttinge on the ryght hand of the kyng; then the chaunceler of Oxforde, with other doctors about hym, presented the said Lord Wylliam, kneelyng, in a doctor's habite, unto the kyng, with his commend of vertue and cunnynge, &c. &c. And on the third boorde of the same warner, the Holy Ghoste appeared with bryght beames proceedyng from hym of the gyftes of grace towarde the sayde lorde of the feaste."

On Saturday, June the 18th, 1814, Alexander, Emperor of Russia, Frederick, King of Prussia, George IV, then Prince Regent of England, with about twenty other royal personages, and many of the great Generals of different nations who had signalized themselves in overthrowing the Emperor Napoleon, and terminating the

dreadful war in Europe, were entertained by the Cor poration of London in Guildhall. How far this sumptuous entertainment might be the means of cementing the hearts of these great sovereigns in cordial friendship, which they now professed, or of securing the patronage of Alexander and Frederick for the Bible Societies in Russia and Prussia, it may not be possible to ascertain; but under the influence of the pious Prince Galitzin, a Bible Society had been formed at Petersburgh in 1813, which received the generous support of Alexander after his return to his capital; and the national Prussian Bible Society was instituted under royal patronage, after the return of Frederick.

Lord Mayor's feasts are proverbial for indisposing those who partake of them for business as well as devotion: but it appears the Royal Visitors were present, on the day preceding their dining at Guildhall, at the Annual Meeting of the Charity Children at St. Paul's Cathedral; and on the day following, Sunday, June 19, the Emperor and his sister privately attended a Meeting of Friends (the Quakers) in St. Martin's Lane!


THOMAS WOLSEY was the son of a butcher at Ipswich, born in 1471, and educated at Magdalen College, Oxford. He was a youth of great parts; and, making considerable proficiency in learning, he became tutor to the sons of Grey, marquis of Dorset, who gave him the rectory of Lymington, in Hampshire, and opened the way for him at court. Prompted by ambition, he sought and obtained promotion and favour under Henry VII, who sent him on an embassy to the emperor, and, on his return, made him dean of Lincoln. Henry VIII gave him the living of Torrington, in Devonshire; and afterwards appointed him register of the garter and canon of Windsor. He next obtained the deanery of York; and attending the king to Tournay in France, in 1513, was made bishop of that city. Honours fell upon him in a degree equal to his ambition. "He was rapacious," says Sir James Mackintosh; "but it was in order to be prodigal in his household, in his dress, in his retinue, in his palaces, and, it must be added, in justice to him, in the magnificence of his literary and religious foundations. The circumstances of his time were propitious to his passion of acquiring money. The pope, the emperor, the kings of France and Spain, desirous of his sovereign's alliance, outbade each other at the sales of a minister's influence; which change of circumstances, and inconsistency of connection, rendered, during that period, more frequent than in most other times. His preferment was too enormous and too rapid to be forgiven by an envious world."

In 1514 he was advanced to the bishopric of Lincoln; and the same year he was made archbishop of York. In 1515 he succeeded archbishop Warham in the office of lord chancellor: the king obtained for him the same year a cardinalship; and, in 1519, he was made the pope's legate in England, with the extraordinary power of suspending the laws and canons of the church. He made every possible effort to obtain the triple crown of his holiness the pope; and was near succeeding, but for the preponderating influence of the emperor, Charles V.

Wolsey's "passion for shows and festivities-not an uncommon infirmity in men intoxicated by sudden wealth perhaps served him with a master, whose ruling folly long seemed to be of the same harinless and ridiculous nature. He encouraged and cultivated

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